Latest Research News on Botany April-21

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Latest Research News on Botany April-21

April 14, 2021 BIOLOGY 0

Latest Research News on Botany April-21

[1] Botany of sugarcane

Few crops have been the subject of such fruitful research in the past fifty years as has sugar cane, and it is doubtful if the results of research on any o]ther crop have been better served than is sugar cane by Dr. van Dillewijn’s book. The term “Botany” is used in its wider sense to embrace, not only the morphology and anatomy of the plant, but also its physiology.The book is divided into two parts. In the first, and shorter, part chapters are devoted to the morphological and anatomical characters of the stem, bud, leaf, inflorescence and root and to a brief evaluation of the use of vegetative characters as an aid to the identification of varieties on the lines worked out by Jeswiet, Artschwager and others.The second, and much the longer, part is concerned with physiology, nine chapters being devoted, respectively, to germination both of true seed and cuttings, tillering, growth of complete stools and of their aerial and root portions, vegetative composition, chemical composition, nutrition, water relations, photosynthesis and respiration. Each chapter, with the exception of the last, is in turn sub-divided into sections and sub-sections to facilitate quick reference. Thus the longest chapter, that on nutrition, deals separately with each of the major elements in relation to their distribution in the plant, migration, trend of uptake, deficiency symptoms, effects of the element, other factors that influence these effects, and the quantity removed by the crop.

[2] The botany of Cook’s voyages

The sub-title runs “and its unexpected significance in relation to anthropology, biogeography and history”. The book can be recommended specially to those who are interested in the history and distribution of tropical plants including many valuable crops, annual and perennial.

[3] An account of the herbaria of the Department of Botany in the University of Oxford

This substantial treatise evidently derives from much laborious research in a number of archives. The treatment is admirably workmanlike and no attempt has been made to attract the attention of the layman with irrelevancies; the only plates are photographs of early manuscripts and identification labels. The esoteric theme of the book will therefore limit its success in terms of sales. However, frequent interesting details occur amongst the lists of names and dates; like most encyclopedias, it could provide an afternoon’s enthralling dabbling to anyone who comes across it by chance. The short first chapter is the most entertaining, in its account of the Oxford Botanic Garden, since its foundation in 1621 with the help of “4, 000 loads of mucke and dunge laide by H. Windiat the Universitie Scavenger”; we read of the first keeper, Jacob Bobart the elder, who “one Whitsuntide tagged his beard with silver, which attracted many people to the Garden”. Chapter II details the major contributors to the herbaria; here the anecdotes reveal much of interest with regard to difficulties which were encountered by taxonomists, as, for example, the interpretation of moss fructifications and the ambiguous mounting of specimens. Further chapters provide sections on individual herbaria, lists of collectors’ names arranged according to the regions of collection, an index with biographical notes of all persons who have contributed plant specimens and, finally, a bibliography.

[4] Genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae): A Review of Its Ethnomedicinal, Botanical, Chemical and Pharmacological Properties

Genus Kalanchoe comprises hundred species. Different extracts of these Kalanchoe species have been widely used in traditional medicine. Recently it has been reported that Kalanchoe extracts possess various biological activities viz. antiviral, sedative, antiulcer, immunomodulatory, antileishmanial, CNS depressant, anti-inflammatory, thyroid peroxidase inhibitor, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, inhibition of B cell development, cardiovascular, antihyperglycemic, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, insecticidal and larvicidal activities. Earlier studies on different Kalanchoe species have reported the isolation of polysaccharides, flavonoids, sterols, ascorbic acid, trace elements, organic acids, hydrocarbons, triterpenoids, phenolic components and bufadenolides. This review presents the botany, chemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological data of genus Kalanchoe.

[5] Potential of Botanical Extracts in the Control of Kale Aphids (Brevicoryne brassicaea) and Their Effect on the Parasitic Wasp (Aphidius ervi)

The use of synthetic pesticides has made important impacts on aphid control.  However, it has limitations due to the development of aphid resistance and negative effects on human health and the environment. In this research, we explore alternatives to pesticides by examining the effectiveness of plant extracts (Mexican marigold, Sodom apples, garlic and ginger) on reducing populations of the kale aphid while preserving its parasitoid, Aphidius ervi.  Use of botanical plants would be of importance to small scale farmers due to their availability, affordability and environmental friendliness. The research was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Aphid numbers, mummified aphid numbers as well as parasitic wasps were counted; data was analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) and mean separation done using Tukeys. Garlic extract was the most effective in control of aphids causing a reduction by 69.5%. Mexican marigold extract was the most effective as compared to garlic extract which controlled high percentage of kale aphids but was very lethal to the Aphidius ervi. Nonetheless, Mexican marigold extract was least effective in the control of aphids.

Reference

[1]  van DlLLEWIJN, C., 1952. Botany of sugarcane. Botany of sugarcane.

[2] Merrill, E.D., 1954. The botany of Cook’s voyages. Chronica botanica14(5/6), pp.161-384.

[3] Clokie, H.N., 1965. An account of the herbaria of the Department of Botany in the University of Oxford. An account of the herbaria of the Department of Botany in the University of Oxford.

[4] Milad, R., El-Ahmady, S. and Singab, A.N., 2014. Genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae): a review of its ethnomedicinal, botanical, chemical and pharmacological properties. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, pp.86-104.

[5] Peris, N.W. and Kiptoo, J.J., 2017. Potential of botanical extracts in the control of kale aphids (Brevicoryne brassicaea) and their effect on the parasitic wasp (Aphidius ervi). Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, pp.1-6.

 

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