Latest Research on Fruit Fly : May 21
 A new Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm: Taking the financial distress model as an example
The treatment of an optimization problem is a problem that is commonly researched and discussed by scholars from all kinds of fields. If the problem cannot be optimized in dealing with things, usually lots of human power and capital will be wasted, and in the worst case, it could lead to failure and wasted efforts. Therefore, in this article, a much simpler and more robust optimization algorithm compared with the complicated optimization method proposed by past scholars is proposed; the Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm. In this article, throughout the process of finding the maximal value and minimal value of a function, the function of this algorithm is tested repeatedly, in the mean time, the population size and characteristic is also investigated. Moreover, the financial distress data of Taiwan’s enterprise is further collected, and the fruit fly algorithm optimized General Regression Neural Network, General Regression Neural Network and Multiple Regression are adopted to construct a financial distress model. It is found in this article that the RMSE value of the Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm optimized General Regression Neural Network model has a very good convergence, and the model also has a very good classification and prediction capability.
 Temporal Patterns of Fruit Fly (Drosophila) Evolution Revealed by Mutation Clocks
Drosophila melanogaster has been a canonical model organism to study genetics, development, behavior, physiology, evolution, and population genetics for nearly a century. Despite this emphasis and the completion of its nuclear genome sequence, the timing of major speciation events leading to the origin of this fruit fly remain elusive because of the paucity of extensive fossil records and biogeographic data. Use of molecular clocks as an alternative has been fraught with non-clock-like accumulation of nucleotide and amino-acid substitutions. Here we present a novel methodology in which genomic mutation distances are used to overcome these limitations and to make use of all available gene sequence data for constructing a fruit fly molecular time scale. Our analysis of 2977 pairwise sequence comparisons from 176 nuclear genes reveals a long-term fruit fly mutation clock ticking at a rate of 11.1 mutations per kilobase pair per Myr. Genomic mutation clock–based timings of the landmark speciation events leading to the evolution of D. melanogaster show that it shared most recent common ancestry 5.4 MYA with D. simulans, 12.6 MYA with D. erecta+D. orena, 12.8 MYA with D. yakuba+D. teisseri, 35.6 MYA with the takahashii subgroup, 41.3 MYA with the montium subgroup, 44.2 MYA with the ananassae subgroup, 54.9 MYA with the obscura group, 62.2 MYA with the willistoni group, and 62.9 MYA with the subgenus Drosophila.
 Oriental Fruit Fly Eradication by Male Annihilation
During 1962–63 cane-fiber squares saturated with a solution of methyl eugenol-3% naled (by volume) and dropped from the air or suspended from trees eradicated a heavy infestation of oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, from the semi-isolated 33-square-mile Island of Rota, Mariana Islands. Most of the squares were dropped at 2-week intervals from an airplane flying over lines 1/5 mile apart. In inhabited areas permanent bait stations, re-treated monthly, were suspended from trees in lieu of aerial drops. Only 3.4 g of toxicant/acre were required for the entire operation.Male fly populations declined 99.6% within 1 generation. Virgin, sexually mature females were attracted and killed by the lure, but only after the male population was depressed 99%. Virgin females constituted 93% of flies caught in the 4th month; this response may have increased the efficiency of the method. Fly catches and fruit infestations ceased during the 6th month. The island has been free of oriental fruit flies for more than 24 months.
 Developing an Integrated Management Approach for the Fruit Fly Dacus punctatifrons on Tomatoes
Aims: To document the various insecticides employed and also test alternative and/or complementary less-toxic and eco-friendly management methods against the notorious fruit fly Dacus punctatifrons on tomatoes as potential components of a multi-pronged eco-friendly integrated approach for this pest.
Study Design: Random interviewing of tomato farmers and field testing of different pest management methods in a randomized block design.
Place and Duration of Study: Interviewed farmers in Buea and its environs. Field experiments at the Research Farm of the University of Buea, South Western Cameroon. October 2010 to September 2011.
Methodology: Structured questionnaires administered to 110 farmers to document how they managed Dacus punctatifrons on their tomatoes and testing the efficacy of Piper guineense aqueous extract, cultural practices like staking, pruning and farm sanitation against this pest in field studies.
Results: Most of the farmers, 58(52.73%) cited Dacus punctatifrons as their main insect pest on tomatoes. All the farmers used conventional insecticides injudiciously to control the insect pests. The synthetic pyrethroid, Cypercal® 50EC was the most popular insecticide used. The numbers of fruits with fruit fly damage signs, and number of adult flies that emerged from plots treated with Piper guineense seed extract were not significantly different from those of plots treated with the neonicotinoid Parastar® 40EC insecticide. These two treatments were significantly superior to the untreated control plots and those where the plants were staked, regularly weeded and judiciously pruned. Fallen fruits and those harvested from farms even up to five weeks after farmers had harvested all marketable fruits still contained Dacus punctatifrons larvae that eventually developed into adults which emerged after laboratory incubation.
Conclusion: Integrating the judicious use of appropriately formulated insecticides, Piper guineense aqueous seed extract, early detection, collection and destruction of fruit fly-infested tomato fruits and destruction of crop residue after harvest can be a sustainable and reduced-risk multi-trigger management system for Dacus punctatifrons on tomatoes.
 Comparison of Insecticide Toxicity in Adults of the Fruit Flies Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) and Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Tephritidae)
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic and quarantine significance are responsible for both quantitative and qualitative losses in horticulture. Most producers in Brazil use insecticides as a cover spray for the control of fruit flies. Here new insecticide molecules were evaluated under laboratory conditions as potential replacements for organophosphates to provide protection and prevent damage to horticultural crops. Five pairs of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) and Anastrepha grandis (Wied.) were placed into Petri dishes and exposed to eight insecticides using a Potter spray tower. The number of insect deaths was monitored until 21 hours after spraying. In general, both Anastrepha species exhibited similar susceptibility to the insecticides. Different fruit fly mortalities were observed among the insecticide treatments beginning 30 minutes after exposure. Interactions were verified between the compounds and fruit fly species and between evaluation periods and treatments. Acetamiprid, deltamethrin, flypyradifurone (1.60 ppm), imidacloprid, phosmet, thiamethoxam and zeta-cypermethrin caused similar mortalities 21 hours after treatment for both fruits fly species.
 Pan, W.T., 2012. A new fruit fly optimization algorithm: taking the financial distress model as an example. Knowledge-Based Systems, 26, pp.69-74.
 Tamura, K., Subramanian, S. and Kumar, S., 2004. Temporal patterns of fruit fly (Drosophila) evolution revealed by mutation clocks. Molecular biology and evolution, 21(1), pp.36-44.
 Steiner, L.F., Mitchell, W.C., Harris, E.J., Kozuma, T.T. and Fujimoto, M.S., 1965. Oriental fruit fly eradication by male annihilation. Journal of Economic Entomology, 58(5), pp.961-964.
 Ntonifor, N.N., Nsobinenyui, D.N., Fokam, E.B. and Fontem, L.A., 2013. Developing an integrated management approach for the fruit fly Dacus punctatifrons on tomatoes. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.470-481.
 Raga, A., Galdino, L.T., e Silva, S.B., Baldo, F.B. and Sato, M.E., 2018. Comparison of insecticide toxicity in adults of the fruit flies Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) and Anastrepha grandis (Macquart)(Tephritidae). Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.1-8.