Monitoring and Safety Assessment of the Presence of Heavy Metals and Organic Pollutants in Vended Street Foods from Selected Locations in Lagos State Nigeria

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Monitoring and Safety Assessment of the Presence of Heavy Metals and Organic Pollutants in Vended Street Foods from Selected Locations in Lagos State Nigeria

February 25, 2021 Agricultural and Food Science 0

In order to determine their safety level, this study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of heavy metals and volatile organic contaminants in street-selling foods sourced from three selected locations in Lagos State, Nigeria. Feed toxicity results from heavy metal food contamination, bioaccumulation, and food chain biomagnification. The research was conducted using absolute randomization design and cluster sampling technique to supply street food sold from three locations (Marina, Yaba and Apapa). Roasted (platinum, fish, yam, maize), suya beef, meat pie, egg roll and doughnuts were the eight food items examined. Lead, cadmium, copper, mercury, iron, zinc and organic contaminants were studied in foods and environmental particulate matter. Heavy metals detected from Marina, Yaba and Apapa Lagos in sold street foods were iron, copper, lead and zinc at levels ranging from 0.14 mg/kg-2.80 mg/kg, 0.08 mg/kg-0.27 mg/kg, 0.01 mg/kg-0.18 mg/kg, and 0.01 mg/kg-0.04 mg/kg. Cadmium and mercury were below the measurable level. Significantly (P<0.05) higher iron concentrations of 2.80 mg/kg and 1.99 mg/kg were observed in suya from Apapa and roasted fish from Apapa, respectively. Important (P<0.05) higher lead (Pb) content of 0.18 mg/kg was observed in Yaba dough nut, but slightly (P<0.05) lower lead content of 0.01 mg/kg was observed in Yaba roasted plantain, roasted fish and meat pie all sourced from Yaba. The zinc content of roasted fish, suya and egg rolls obtained from Marina, Yaba and Apapa were all significantly different (P<0.05), especially with regard to the type of food. A higher iron content of 2.80 mg/kg was observed for Apapa suya. In all street food samples sold, volatile organic compounds (TPH, PAHs, Phenol) were found to be below the detectable level (<0.001 mg/kg). Particulate matter in the air ranged from 0.34-0.84 mg/m3, 0.32-0.56 mg/m3, 0.32-0.68 mg/m3, 0.33-0.79 mg/m3 and <0.001-0.24 mg/m3 respectively; SPM, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and VOCs. There were no statistically significant PM1 and PM25 from the three locations (P>0.05). Vehicular emissions are one big source of contamination for most street foods sold. All of the food samples sold had a lead (Pb) content above the CODEX allowable 0.01 mg/kg limit. The presence of high lead content is a significant source of occupational health hazards in Vended Street food. Further study is highly recommended on the extensive outdoor air quality and street food quality in Lagos State to act as a safeguard for public health and consumer interest.

Author (s) Details

G. I. Oyet
Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

C. B. Samuel
Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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