A Brachial Artery and Its Branching Pattern – Cadaveric Study
Background: Vascular radiologists and surgeons need a thorough understanding of the normal and variant arterial anatomy of the upper extremities for accurate diagnostic interpretation as well as the smooth execution of interventional and surgical treatments on the upper extremity.
Anatomical knowledge of the anomalous branching pattern of the brachial artery is essential during percutaneous arterial catheterization to avoid complications caused by accidental damage to the anomalous blood vessel, and knowledge of the variations is essential for plastic surgeons who use flaps for reconstructive surgery. All cases of traumatic amputation and revascularization procedures require knowledge of the upper division of the brachial artery. The bifurcation of the brachial artery is the most common site for embolism, and a higher bifurcation would result in a bigger area of ischemia than expected, and the higher division would seek a greater clinical importance.
Materials and Methods: Fifty upper limbs of both sexes from an embalmed adult human cadaver used for undergraduate dissection at Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences in Mandya were used in the current study.
The normal brachial artery was found in 42 specimens, accounting for 84 percent of all the samples.
Eight specimens (16%) had variations; five of these had brachial artery trifurcation into the radial, ulnar, and radial recurrent arteries (10%); one specimen had double profunda brachii artery (2%); one specimen had high origin of the radial artery (2%); and one specimen had high division of the brachial artery in the proximal third of the arm (2%) (2 percent ).
Conclusion: Physicians, cardiologists, vascular surgeons, and interventional radiologists must have a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the brachial artery and its branching pattern, as well as their variations. The study of these variations and understanding of them aids in the prevention of iatrogenic blood vessel injuries, the care of accidental/traumatic upper-limb artery injuries, and diagnostic procedures (like arteriograms).
Author (S) Details
Department of Anatomy, JSS Medical College, JSS AHER, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.
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