Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Three Gram-negative Bacteria Found at Low Frequencies in Female Genital Microbiomes
Three Gram-negative bacterial genera are involved with low frequencies in genital infections, Acinetobacter, Hafnia and Campylobacter, contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes. This research discusses the microbiological, epidemiological, diagnostic and treatment features of each of these taxa and describes some unique cases of maternal and infant infections, demonstrating the problems faced by these pathogens and in the treatment of maternal and neonatal infections. It is concluded that cultivation-independent studies to classify and characterize the bacteria that cause histological chorioamnionitis and spontaneous preterm birth related intra-amniotic infections would reveal species that warrant further research. This awareness would promote the development of new prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies in combination with the implementation of enhanced microbial detection methods in the clinical environment.
George L. Mendz
School of Medicine, Sydney, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.
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