An Overview on Pathogenesis of Cancer: Cancer Reparative Trap
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world, and the long-term prognosis is still unfavorable, despite the enormous efforts in the search for effective anti-cancer drugs. We think that the obstacle to creating the effective anti-cancer drugs is the existing idea that the basis of cancer is the damage of the genetic apparatus of the cell. In this paper we present the pathogenesis of cancer which is based on the formation of the special sustainable pathophysiological state of the organism – the state of “cancer reparative trap”. The essence of this pathophysiological state of the organism is in the reparative orientation of the immune system of cancer patients, when constant tissue repair is accompanied by systemic suppression of the anti-tumor immunity. Specifically, during the long-term exposure to carcinogens (exogenous and/or endogenous) the continuous tissue damage occurs which induces permanent stimulation of cell proliferation (imbalanced Th1<Th2 lymphocytes, M1<M2 macrophages, inflammation, angiogenesis, etc.) in order to repair the tissues damaged. At the same time, tissue repair is necessarily accompanied by the suppression of anti-tumor immunity (increase in T regulatory cell (Treg), imbalanced Th1<Th2 lymphocytes, M1<M2 macrophages et al.), which creates the necessary conditions for the survival of the malignantly transformed cells, formed by the action of carcinogens. The determining role of the imbalance in the autonomous nervous system (simpathetic/hypersympathetic dominance) in the development, maintenance and generalization of the cancer process has been shown. The explanation of a number of phenomena has been presented: the cell resistance to chemotherapy and the phenomenon of cancer cell dormancy. The promising approaches for the cancer management in clinical practice has been proposed.
Dr. Oleg V. Bukhtoyarov,
Medical Center 39, LLC, Kaliningrad, Russia
Dr. Denis M. Samarin,
Laboratory of Psychoimmunology, Medical Center 39, LLC, Kaliningrad, Russia.
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