B ∞ 1/T and Meissner Effect 1933 Re-explained by Gill’s Electronic Theory of Magnetism 1964
According to Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism, the Curie point is reached at a certain high temperature for a particular metal because the increased inter-atomic distance makes it impossible for some exposed electrons of a ferromagnetic atom to latch onto the exposed protons of the next atom to cause magnetization. A stronger external magnetic field could be used to raise the Curie point.
On cooling the magnet to a critical temperature, the Meissner effect 1933 refers to the lateral ejection or squeezing out of an otherwise constant total magnetic flux from within the magnet to the outside. It will be demonstrated that the concept of internal plus external magnetic flux as a constant is incorrect, and an alternate explanation for the Meissner experiment results achieved in 1933 using Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism 1964 will be offered (the re-explained Meissner effect).
On cooling, the shortened inter-atomic distance of the magnetic chain inside the magnetised tin cylinder causes a greater amount of electrons from one atom to latch onto the protons of the next atom, and so on, according to Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism. This increased magnetic attraction between exposed electrons and protons of nearby magnetised atoms prevents the increased intra-magnetic force from being expelled along its lateral length.
Due to the shortened inter-atomic distance caused by cooling, the magnetization of the tin cylinders results in the production of a stronger external magnetic force around the tin cylinder, with no change in the external applied external magnetic force, and this is the right Meissner effect.
The effect of a dense layer of electrons on the tin surface on the electron dependent north magnetic pole of a magnet in the Meissner experiment will be discussed.
Superconductivity is explained by supercooling, which results in a substantially reduced inter-atomic distance, allowing for easy passage of free outer valence electrons as they flow from one atom to the next with near zero resistance. In a superconducting supercooled condition, these outside free electrons will receive identical force from surrounding consecutive proton masses of consecutive atoms, allowing them to flow freely with zero resistance.
Author (s) Details
Avtar Singh Gill
Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA.
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