Characteristics of Afzelia africana Seed under Compressive Loading: An Empirical Study

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Characteristics of Afzelia africana Seed under Compressive Loading: An Empirical Study

March 6, 2021 Science and Technology 0

Using a Monsanto Tensometer, Afzelia africana seeds were subjected to a quasi-static parallel plate compression test. At four different moisture content levels of 10.6 percent, 12.8 percent, 15.2 percent, and 18.4 percent wet basis, the loading orientations were horizontal, vertical, and edge-to-edge (wb). At different moisture contents ranging from 10.6 percent to 18.4 percent, slight differences in the means of the physical characteristics were observed. The loading location had a noticeable impact on all of the mechanical properties investigated. When loaded horizontally and vertically, the rupture force increased as the moisture content increased, but there was no clear pattern in variation when loaded on the edges. Vertical loading was 155.68 N, horizontal loading was 139.27 N, and edge-to-edge loading was 81.0 N. In the moisture content range of 10.6 to 18.4 percent, hardness ranged from 6.97 to 6.92 N/mm for horizontal loading, 6.92 to 6.67 N/mm for edge-loading, and 6.99 to 6.93 N/mm for vertical loading. For the same range of moisture content, rupture energy ranged from 104 to 416.33 N-mm on horizontal loading, 59.96 to 241.82 on edge loading, and 190.125 to 419.171 N-mm on vertical loading. For horizontal loading, edge-edge orientation, and vertical loading, toughness ranged from 43.758 to 8.865 N-m/mm, 23.563 to 5.370, and 44.667 to 16.349 N-m/mm, respectively, for moisture content of 10.6 to 18.4 percent. In the range of moisture content of 10.6 to 18.4 percent, the modulus of elasticity fell from 35.657 to 28.133 N/mm2 for horizontal loading, from 51.443 to 14.59 for edge-to-edge loading, and from 38.087 to 41.04 N/mm2 for vertical loading. The information gathered in this study can be used to estimate the amount of energy and force required to shell the seeds, as well as to make recommendations for the loading situation that will require the least amount of energy for the activity and shelling. Physical properties are also useful in the design and study of processes. Vernier callipers were used to calculate physical characteristics such as major, minor, and intermediate diameter. Others were measured using the primary dimensions of weight and linear dimensions derived from the measurements, such as arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameters, sphericity, bulk density, porosity, and surface area.

Author (s) Details

Dr. C. O. Nwajinka
Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Dr. C. U. Onuegbu
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Dr. D. O. Amaefule
Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

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