Decoding the Cardio-vascular Pathophysiology in COVID-19

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Decoding the Cardio-vascular Pathophysiology in COVID-19

July 7, 2021 Medicine and Medical Science 0

The global pandemic caused by Coronavirus 19 (SARS-CoV-19) spread quickly and affected the entire world, with the most cases reported in the United States, India, and Brazil. According to WHO data as of September 24, 2020, Coronavirus 19 (SARS-CoV-19) infected 31,664,104 people and killed 972,221 [1]. Globally, the age-normalized death rate from cardio-vascular disease (CVD) is 272 per one lakh population, while in India, it is 235 per one lakh population [2]. People with heart disease are twelve times more likely than healthy people to die and six times more likely to be hospitalized as a result of severe coronavirus disease (Covid-19) [3]. Other extra-pulmonary complications of Covid 19 disease include acute renal injury, gastrointestinal consequences, hepatocellular damage, hyperglycemia, ketosis, ocular complications, dermatologic manifestations, thrombotic sequelae, acute coronary syndromes, myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmia, neurological illnesses, and so on [4]. The most common covid-related cardiac abnormality is acute cardiac injury, which affects 8-12 percent of all patients [5]. Acute cardiac injury is defined by an elevated level of cardiac troponin [6]. Coronavirus increases pro-inflammatory markers, T-lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity, sympathetic activity, plaque rupture, myocardial cell invasion, and direct myocardial damage, which is exacerbated by the cytokine storm syndrome. Acute cardiac injury, acute coronary event, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, acute left ventricular failure, diastolic dysfunction [7], brain medullary cardiorespiratory dysfunction and congestive heart failure (CHF) [8-12], ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock are all COVID-19-related cardiovascular complications. Pericarditis, pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, venous thromboembolism, and cardiomyopathies mimicking STEMI presentations, sinus bradycardia [13], arrhythmia, cardiac conduction abnormalities [14], and sudden death [15]. A thorough understanding of the COVID-19 effect on the cardiovascular system is critical for optimum treatment of covid-affected patients and the prevention of morbidity and mortality. Because the pathophysiology of myocardial complications is still unknown, we attempted to decode the cardiovascular pathophysiology in Covid 19 infection.

Author (S) Details

Smita R. Sorte
Department of Physiology, AIIMS, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Dr. Sachin B. Rathod
Department of Physiology, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Dr. Ashwini Patil
Department of Physiology, Symbiosis Medical college for Women, Symbiosis International (DU), Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Dr. Ashok Ahirwar

Department of Biochemistry, AIIMS, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

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