Detils of the Preliminary Studies on Piliostigma thonningii Schum Leaf Extract: Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antimalarial Activity
Medicinally, different parts of Piliostigma thonningii Scum (Caesalpinioideae) have been used. In the treatment of dysentery, fever, respiratory problems, snake bites, hookworm and skin infections in Eastern Nigeria, roots and twigs have been used locally. Leaf extracts have been used in Northern Nigeria for various ethnomedical purposes, including the treatment of malaria. The inhibitory effects of crude ethanol and methanol extracts on in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium Falciparum clone clones were investigated in this study (W2-Indo-China isolates). The existence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones was revealed by aqueous screening using recorded phytochemical screening methodologies and in vitro test methods. The crude leaf extracts obtained were tested with a chloroquine resistant strain of P for in vitro antimalarial activity. Clone of Falciparum (W2-Indochina Isolates). After 48 to 72 h of interaction between the extracts and the parasite culture, 50 per cent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were evaluated. For both the crude amide ethanolic extract and the partially distilled methanolic extract, the 50 percent inhibitory concentration values are below the significant activity range of 6.20 – 15.06 μg/ml (P = 0.000). Although that of 0.316 μg/ml was chloroquine (P = 0.013). It lends scientific credence to the use of leaves in ethnomedicine for the treatment of malaria. Therefore, it is recommended that further chemical studies be enhanced in order to classify and better characterise the actual compounds responsible for the antiplasmodial activity observed, as they could provide a solution to the persistent resistance to antimalaria.
Author (s) Details
Dr. A. Kwaji
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Gombe state University, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria.
Dr. P. U. Bassi
Department of Medicine, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada FCT State, Nigeria.
Chemistry Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
Dr. C. M. Nneji
Kemnal Technology College. Kent, England, United Kingdom.
Institute for Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, UCH, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
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