Diabetic Retinopathy: Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence System
Objectives: To estimate the oxidant/antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy and to compare the development of retinopathy with a number of independent variables (age, gender, education, body mass index, diabetes length, glycosylated haemoglobin, hypertension). Design of Analysis: Case-control study. Location and length of the study: Research laboratories, Department of Medical Laboratories, Qassim University College of Applied Medical Sciences, April 2010-April 2011. Methodology: One hundred diabetic patients with retinopathy were included in the study, recruited from King Fahad Specialist Hospital- Buraidah. The control groups were: control group 1 consisted of sixty non-retinopathic type 2 diabetic patients recruited from the Diabetes and Endocrinology Center, KFSH, Buraidah, KSA; and control group 2 consisted of sixty publicly recruited stable ‘non-diabetic subjects,’ i.e. Estarahes, Estarahes (party lounges). Every subject’s blood was used to prepare plasma, serum, and erythrocyte lysate. Using commercial kits supplied by Northwest, U.S.A., human serum 8-OHdG, plasma MDA, and erythrocyte lysate Cu-Zn SOD were estimated. Data was analysed using SPSS software and Win Episcope software. P-values <0.05 were considered to be important. Results: The development of retinopathy was consistently correlated with age, education, period of diabetes, impaired glycaemic control and hypertension (OR 5.891, 4.44, 10.420, 1.699, 1.820 respectively). In addition, increased plasma MDA, elevated serum 8-OHdG levels, and decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD were observed in diabetic patients with retinopathy relative to control group subjects. Furthermore, in all subjects, negative associations between plasma MDA and Cu-Zn SOD activity, HbA1c & Cu-Zn SOD activity were identified. Conclusion: This research highlights the important role of oxidative stress in the development of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes, indicating that the blocking of oxidative stress is a key step in slowing the progression of diabetic retinopathy, and hence the need to delay the severity of diabetic retinopathy with antioxidant supplements.
Abdelmarouf Hassan Mohieldein
Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.
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