Evaluating Toxicity and Pharmacognostic Standards for Laxative Properties of Nigerian Cassia sieberiana and Senna obtusifolia Roots

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Evaluating Toxicity and Pharmacognostic Standards for Laxative Properties of Nigerian Cassia sieberiana and Senna obtusifolia Roots

January 4, 2021 BIOLOGY 0

Objectives: Research on the sourcing of laxative crude drugs among species of Nigerian Cassia/Senna has continued. Pharmacognostic and toxicity studies have been carried out on the roots of Cassia sieberiana and Senna obtusifolia, identified as mild laxatives, in order to form part of their monographs. Study Design: This is an experimental laboratory report on toxicological and pharmacognostic studies which will provide for these two plants developing in Nigeria with some specific pharmacopoeial standards. Place and length of the study: Obafemi Awolowo University Department of Pharmacognosy, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between August 2010 and January 2013. Methodology: The Cassia sieberiana DC roots. Irwin and Bernaby (Caesalpiniaceae) and Senna obtusifolia Irwin and Bernaby (Caesalpiniaceae) were collected during the rainy season from the eastern (Nsukka), western (Ile-Ife and Iree) and northern (Jos) parts of Nigeria. Organoleptic, morphological, phytochemical, physico-chemical, and toxicity tests were conducted on the plant materials. The data was evaluated at 95% confidence level through one-way Study of Variance. The Senna alexandrina (Herb Tea) reference was acquired from a pharmacy. Outcomes: The micro-morphological review of C. Sieberian, S. As useful diagnostic characteristics for identification, obtusifolia roots showed porous vessels, apotracheal parenchyma cells, etc. Anthraquinones, free and mixed, were found. For the hot infusion of each plant material, the toxic oral dose (LD50) was found to be > 5000 mg/kg in rats. The histo-pathological analysis of C. At 500 and 1000 mg/kg, sieberiana exhibited reversible proliferation of messenchymal kidney cells, mild periportal liver infiltration, and mild to severe testicular atrophy in rats and S. No detectable histopathological changes were observed for obtusifolia at 500 mg/kg, except at 1000 mg/kg, which showed mild periportal liver infiltration, as was also observed with the reference senna infusion. Finding: C. At lower doses, sieberiana root was generally non-toxic, while its high-dose toxicity in the kidney, liver and testis was reversible following drug withdrawal. Therefore, the results provided some of the useful data needed for the identification, assessment, quality assurance and protection of the two plants to qualify them for inclusion in the 2nd Nigerian Herbal Pharmacopoeia (NHP) and West African Herbal Pharmacopoeia editions (WAHP).

Author(s) Details

Clement Olusoji Ajayi
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Anthony A. Elujoba
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Ronald A. Bejide
Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Johnson A. Akinloye
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Abidemi E. Omonisi
Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, OAU Teaching Hospital Complex, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

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