Identification and Source Apportionment of Air Particulates and Its Elemental Composition in Different Microenvironments of a Mega City: A Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria

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Identification and Source Apportionment of Air Particulates and Its Elemental Composition in Different Microenvironments of a Mega City: A Case Study of Lagos, Nigeria

February 22, 2021 Physical Science 0

Like most megacities worldwide, Lagos State, Nigeria, faces worsening air quality as a result of rapid industrialization, accelerated urbanization, economic development, exponential population growth, inadequate urban planning, and lax/non-enforcement of air quality standards legislation. In the indoor and outdoor microenvironments of a residential area in Lagos State, this study aims to examine Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), its elemental concentrations and source emission signatures. With the aid of a portable air sampler (Hi-Q CF-901), samples were gathered from July 2016 to April 2017. The weight of the samples was subsequently calculated using the gravimetric process. The samples’ elemental content was then collected by the process of wet acid digestion and quantified by the method of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic (AAS). The elemental concentrations obtained were subjected to Enrichment Factor Analysis (EF) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to classify the possible sources of pollutant emissions in the study area (PCA). Correlation analysis, cluster analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were conducted to further elucidate the relationship between contaminants at the sampling sites. During both seasons of the sampling period, the result of the mass concentrations of the particulates collected showed high base-line concentrations. In the indoor and outdoor micro-environments, a concentration range of 833.33-1944.45 μgm-3 and 1111.11-1944.45 μgm-3 was obtained during the wet season. A concentration range of 1111.11-2777.78 μgm-3 and 1388.89-2222.22 μgm-3 was reached indoors and outdoors during the dry season. The PCA study established road dust, combustion activities and marine pollution as the primary sources of environmental pollutants. The findings of the correlations analysis and cluster analysis were in accordance with the results of the EF and PCA. The findings of ANOVA showed that, there was no spatial difference in the elemental concentration of most of the metals (P>0.05). In conclusion, findings obtained revealed that, contaminants concentration in the study area is higher than air quality norm limits.

Author (s) Details

J. M. Okuo
Environmental Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

F. O. Oyibo
Environmental Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

Dr. B. Anegbe
Department of Basic and Industrial Chemistry, Western Delta University, P.M.B. 10, Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.

I. E. Chiedu
Department of Production, Analytical and Laboratory Management, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria.

O. Adeniyi
Environmental Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

W. Ojo
Environmental Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

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