Incidence of Prostate Cancer at a Referral Centre in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana; A 10-Year Retrospective Study
Prostate cancer is becoming increasingly common in Africa, particularly in the Sub-Saharan region. The high incidence rate in Ghana can be attributed to a lack of proper knowledge about prostate cancer and a variety of lifestyle choices. Understanding the dynamics of the disorder’s occurrence is one approach to developing effective public health programs and interventions to help reduce the rising incidence. The purpose of this study was to fill a data gap in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana by assessing the incidence, patterns, and presentation of prostate cancer. We attempted to provide region-specific hardcore data that will aid in assessing the problem and providing solutions. From 2009 to 2018, all prostate disease cases were reviewed retrospectively. Subjects aged 40 and up were eligible for screening. At the study site, diagnostic and screening tools for prostate cancer include a family history, a serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, a digital rectal examination, a urological ultrasound scan, and histopathology (biopsy). Age, PSA levels, and the year of screening/diagnosis were also obtained from patient folders/archived reports for the study. The study’s histological findings and parameters included diagnosis, carcinoma grading, perineural invasion (PNI), and percentage of affected tissues ( percent TA). There were 369 prostate cancer cases, accounting for 36.4 percent of the 1,014 prostate diseases studied. With 51 cases, 2014 had the highest annual prevalence (13.8 percent ). Patients’ ages ranged from 46 to 101 years old, with a modal age range of 70 – 79 years and a mean SD of 72.2 9.8. The average PSA level measured was 37.1ng/ml (107.3), with a predominance in the 11 – 20.9 ng/ml range. Cancers of the 2nd and 3rd grades The majority of prostate cancers were caused by, accounting for 149 (40.4 percent ) of valid cases. The grade of prostate cancer and perineural invasion had a weak correlation (p = 0.091). Perineural invasion was found in 38.0 percent of graded cancer cases. The Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana has a high incidence of prostate cancer (32 per 100,000), with the majority of cases being advanced prostatic carcinoma. Reported cases also have a high percentage of TA (38.7 percent) and PNI (38.0 percent). To avoid progression to malignancy, early screening for prostate diseases should be encouraged, and public health interventions are required to address some of these issues.
Author (S) Details
Egote Alexander Kofi
Department of Surgery (Urology Unit), Brong Ahafo Regional Hospital, Sunyani, Ghana
Ossei Paul Peter Sampane
Department of Pathology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
Ayibor William Gilbert
Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
Egote Constance Amuzua
Department of Child Health, Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Cape Coast, Ghana.
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