Iraqi Cephalometric Standard Norms
Objective: To establish a more accurate reliable standard value of the widely used
cephalometric parameters for the Iraqi Arab adults and comparing them to the norms of Caucasians
Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis of the pertinent cephalometric studies of Iraqi adults for
period confined between 1988 to 2017 was conducted. 27 of the total of 92 collected studies were met
the inclusion criteria. The selected studies have involved the published articles and unpublished
master theses, all of them exhibit numerical data for both genders of Iraqi Arab individuals who have
class I skeletal pattern with normal occlusion. Selection of 35 parameters took place, included mostly
used skeletodental cephalometric measurements to be evaluated and compared. Statistical tests
were applied to describe the means and SD, also to find out the statistical ethnic difference between
the Iraqis and Caucasians.
Results: The standard norms of many cephalometric parameters exhibited a significant gender
difference in Iraqi adults’ individuals, with greater linear hard tissues measurements in males, while
non-significant gender differences appeared in facial soft tissue profile. On the other hands, most of
the elected cephalometric parameters showed statistically significant differences between the Iraqi
Arab and Caucasians compares. Generally, the Iraqis had smaller craniofacial dimensions, maxillary
and mandibular skeletal retrusion and more convex profile.
Conclusions: Apparent sexual dimorphism in addition to significant ethnic difference requires the
adoption of gender as well as ethnic specified standard norms during the cephalometric analysis of
Iraqi Arab adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment, to reach an accurate diagnosis and treatment
Author (s) Details
Arkan Muslim Al. Azzawi
Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Babylon, Iraq.
Hasan Sabah Hasan
Department of Orthodontics, Khanzad Specialist and Teaching Centre, General Health Directorate in Hawler, Ministry of Health – KRG, Iraq.
Hayder A. Kadhim
Department of pediatrics, orthodontics and preventive dentistry (P.O.P), College of Dentistry, University of Kufa, Iraq.
Aymen Hameed Uraibi
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, University of Babylon, Iraq.
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