Lateral Cephalometric Norms: An Overview
Background: Lateral cephalometric is used in diagnosis, treatment planning and stability of orthodontic treatment. This research aimed to search the literature and formulate cephalometric norms for lateral cephalometric measurements of Emirates adults and to study gender differences. Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 176 Emirates adults, 91 males and 85 females, were selected according to the following criteria; an age range between 19 to 25 years, esthetically pleasing and harmonious faces with balanced and acceptable profiles and occlusions, normal skeletal and dental relationship, all permanent teeth present and no history of orthodontic treatment or facial trauma. The mean values and standard deviations of 91 angular and 21 linear cephalometric variables were calculated using the Dolphin version 10.5 software package. The resulting norms for Emirates male and female groups were compared using a student t-test. Results: Several statistically significant gender differences were noticeable. Skeletally, Emirates males showed significantly greater (p < 0.001) total, anterior, and posterior cranial base lengths as well as longer facial heights, greater SGn-FH (°), ANS Xi PM (°), and FH/MP (°) angles than females. In addition, Emirates males had significantly greater (p < 0.001) Co-A (mm), Co-Gn (mm), and significantly greater (p < 0.05) Pog-N vert (mm) than females. Dentally, Emirates males had significantly greater (p < 0.05) UI-SN (°) and U1-NA (°), U1-NA (mm), and L1-NB (mm) (p < 0.001) than females. For soft tissue measurements there were significant gender differences (p < 0.001) for all angular and linear measurements except for lower lip to E-plane and nose prominence measurements which have no significant gender difference. Emirates males revealed greater measurements than females except for soft tissue convexity, Z-angle, and both upper and lower lips protrusion which were significantly greater in Emirates females. Conclusions: The use of specific ce- phalometric standards for Emirates adults, separate for gender, seems to be justified. It is appropriate to put these cephalometric norms into daily orthodontic practice when Emirates adults are being treated.
Dr. Huda M. Abu-Tayyem
Ras Al Kamiah College of Dental Sciences (RAKCODS), RAK Medical & Health Sciences University, UAE.
View Book :- http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/212