Latest News on bone cancer : Aug – 2020
EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF METASTATIC BONE CANCER BY PHOTOSCANNING WITH STRONTIUM- 85
Photoscans of bone utilizing 50 mu C of Sr/sup 85/ were made in 90 cancer patients with proven or suspected metastases to bone, In 11 patients the scan was positive and the x ray negative, and in 75 patients there was good agreement between the scan and the roentgenogram. The scan, however, frequently showed greater involvement than was apparent on x rays. These results were confirmed by bone biopsy in 14 patients. Phantom studies were carried out which indicated that there is good correlation between the scan and known isotopic volumes within bone. Bone tissue counts of radiostrontium content were also correlated with biopsy findings and lend funther support to the validity of the method. It is concluded that the Sr/sup 85/ photoscan can detect early metastatic cancer to bone prior to observable roentgenographic changes. Not only have these scans been of value in diagnosis, but they have allowed the radiation therapist to plan treatment pontals more effectively. (auth) 
Bone cancer pain: the effects of the bisphosphonate alendronate on pain, skeletal remodeling, tumor growth and tumor necrosis
Patients with metastatic breast, lung or prostate cancer frequently have significant bone cancer pain. In the present report we address, in a single in vivo mouse model, the effects the bisphosphonate alendronate has on bone cancer pain, bone remodeling and tumor growth and necrosis. Following injection and confinement of green fluorescent protein-transfected murine osteolytic tumor cells into the marrow space of the femur of male C3H/HeJ mice, alendronate was administered chronically from the time the tumor was established until the bone cancer pain became severe. Alendronate therapy reduced ongoing and movement-evoked bone cancer pain, bone destruction and the destruction of sensory nerve fibers that innervate the bone. Whereas, alendronate treatment did not change viable tumor burden, both tumor growth and tumor necrosis increased. These data emphasize that it is essential to utilize a model where pain, skeletal remodeling and tumor growth can be simultaneously assessed, as each of these can significantly impact patient quality of life and survival. 
Analgesic Efficacy of Bradykinin B1 Antagonists in a Murine Bone Cancer Pain Model
Cancer pain is a significant clinical problem because it is the first symptom of disease in 20% to 50% of all cancer patients, and 75% to 90% of patients with advanced or terminal cancer must cope with chronic pain syndromes related to failed treatment and/or tumor progression. One of the most difficult to treat cancer pains is metastatic invasion of the skeleton that can generate ongoing and bone breakthrough pain, which represents one of the most debilitating cancer-related events. Because bradykinin has been shown to be released in response to tissue injury and plays a significant role in driving acute and chronic inflammatory pain, we focused on bradykinin antagonists in a model of bone cancer pain. In our model of bone cancer, which involves the injection and confinement of 2472 sarcoma cells to the mouse femur, pharmacologic blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor is effective in reducing pain-related behaviors at both early and advanced stages of bone cancer. 
Role of Breast Feeding and Parity in Prevalence of Breast Cancer and Bone Metastasis
Our aim was to evaluate the role of breast feeding and parity (alive and abortion) in prevalence of breast cancer and secondary bone metastasis. For The study purpose 100 diagnosed females of breast cancer were selected. Proper history, especially about parity and lactation was sought. Consent and questionnaire forms were filled. Bone scan is done to rule out bone spread. In Pakistan per annum prevalence rate is 90,000. The frequency of breast cancer in Karachi was 69.1 per 100,000 according to 1998-2002 data.1.7 million cases and 521,900 deaths were reported in year of 2012. Breast cancer as single cause of death accounts for 25% of diagnosed cancer cases and 15% of all cancer deaths. Major risk factors are primary infertility, long exposure of contraceptive pills and estrogen due to late menopause. Upper and outer quadrant of left breast is commonest site for breast cancer. Breast feeding exerts beneficial effect on both mother and infant health. During and after several years of lactation low estrogen levels may be directly responsible for decline in breast cancer cases. Delayed ovulation is another indirect safe effect for reduction in breast cancer cases. Bone scanning is the first choice to pick bone metastasis secondary to breast cancer. Recommended sensitivity is 95%.
This study evaluates the role of parity and breast feeding in patients of breast cancer with and without bone metastasis. No statistically significant difference was found in parity (alive children and abortion) among bone scan positive and negative case. Breast feeding practices were significantly less in bone scanning positive (76%) cases as compared to negative (87%) cases (p<0.05). Breast feeding of any duration has a significant role in protection from breast cancer. Parity does not directly impact the prevalence of breast cancer, but may exert an indirect beneficial role. 
Alkaline Phosphatase and Simple Gray Scale Ultrasonography in Detecting Liver Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients: A Comparison between Bone Scan Positive and Bone Scan Negative Patients
Alkaline Phosphatase (s-ALP) has been extensively used to monitor the disease and screen the patients for cancer metastasis. Both the baseline s-ALP and changes in s-ALP have been reported as prognostic factors for treatment effect and survival in bony and liver metastatic breast cancer.
Aims: To signify the role of serum Alkaline Phosphatase in combination with simple gray scale ultrasound in detecting and confirming liver metastasis in breast cancer patients with and without bone metastasis.
Study Design: It was a cross sectional comparative study.
Place and Duration of Study: Conducted at Karachi Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine between 2011 and 2012.
Methodology: Histopathologically confirmed cases of breast cancer were identified and bone scans were conducted. 100 females with positive and 100 females with negative bone scan belong to any age group were included. Liver ultrasound of all subjects was conducted, using simple gray scale ultrasound machines. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase was measured with the help of semiautomatic biochemical analyzer.
Results: Liver metastasis was found by ultrasound in both bone scan positive and bone patients. Serum ALP levels found very high (P value< 0.001) in patients with liver metastasis.
Conclusion: Positive liver ultrasound, using simple gray scale and high serum ALP levels strongly correlated with positive liver metastasis in breast cancer. Liver metastasis was found more frequent among bony metastatic breast cancer. A combination of routinely done, low cost test in determination of liver metastatic breast cancer will prove better detecting tools especially in poor resources settings. 
 Charkes, N.D. and Sklaroff, D.M., 1964. Early diagnosis of metastatic bone cancer by photoscanning with strontium-85. Journal of Nuclear Medicine (US), 5.
 Sevcik, M.A., Luger, N.M., Mach, D.B., Sabino, M.A.C., Peters, C.M., Ghilardi, J.R., Schwei, M.J., Röhrich, H., De Felipe, C., Kuskowski, M.A. and Mantyh, P.W., 2004. Bone cancer pain: the effects of the bisphosphonate alendronate on pain, skeletal remodeling, tumor growth and tumor necrosis. Pain, 111(1-2), pp.169-180.
 Sevcik, M.A., Ghilardi, J.R., Halvorson, K.G., Lindsay, T.H., Kubota, K. and Mantyh, P.W., 2005. Analgesic efficacy of bradykinin B1 antagonists in a murine bone cancer pain model. The journal of pain, 6(11), pp.771-775.
 Fatima, H., Siddiqui, M., Ahmed, A., Maqbool, A. and Ikram, H. (2016) “Role of Breast Feeding and Parity in Prevalence of Breast Cancer and Bone Metastasis”, Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 4(1), pp. 1-8. doi: 10.9734/JCTI/2016/26734.
 Fatima, H., Maqbool, A., Siddiqui, M., Sohail, H., Saleem, O. and Hasan, Z. (2016) “Alkaline Phosphatase and Simple Gray Scale Ultrasonography in Detecting Liver Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients: A Comparison between Bone Scan Positive and Bone Scan Negative Patients”, Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 4(3), pp. 1-9. doi: 10.9734/JCTI/2016/26755.