Latest News on Salt Stress Research: Jan – 2020

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Latest News on Salt Stress Research: Jan – 2020

January 24, 2020 AGRICULTURE 0

Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress

When under salt stress, plants maintain a high concentration of K+ and a coffee concentration of Na+ within the cytosol. they are doing this by regulating the expression and activity of K+ and Na+ transporters and of H+ pumps that generate the drive for transport. Although salt-stress sensors remain elusive, a number of the intermediary signaling components are identified. Evidence suggests that a protein kinase complex consisting of the myristoylated calcium-binding protein SOS3 and therefore the serine/threonine protein kinase SOS2 is activated by a salt-stress-elicited calcium signal. The protein kinase complex then phosphorylates and activates various ion transporters, like the cell wall Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1. [1]

Cell Signaling during Cold, Drought, and Salt Stress

Low temperature, drought, and high salinity are common stress conditions that adversely affect plant growth and crop production. The cellular and molecular responses of plants to environmental stress are studied intensively (Thomashow, 1999; Hasegawa et al., 2000). Understanding the mechanisms by which plants perceive environmental signals and transmit the signals to cellular machinery to activate adaptive responses is of fundamental importance to biology. Knowledge about stress signal transduction is additionally vital for continued development of rational breeding and transgenic strategies to enhance stress tolerance in crops. during this review, we first consider common characteristics of stress signal transduction in plants, then examine some recent studies on the functional analysis of signaling components. Finally, we plan to put these components and pathways into signal transduction networks that are grouped into three generalized signaling types. [2]

Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell

Background: Plants are often subjected to periods of soil and atmospheric water deficits during their life cycle also as, in many areas of the world , to high soil salinity. Understanding how plants answer drought, salt and co-occurring stresses can play a serious role in stabilizing crop performance under drought and saline conditions and within the protection of natural vegetation. Photosynthesis, along side cell growth, is among the first processes to be suffering from water or salt stress.

Scope: the consequences of drought and salt stresses on photosynthesis are either direct (as the diffusion limitations through the stomata and therefore the refore the mesophyll and the alterations in photosynthetic metabolism) or secondary, like the oxidative stress arising from the superimposition of multiple stresses. The carbon balance of a plant during a period of salt/water stress and recovery may depend the maximum amount on the speed and degree of photosynthetic recovery, because it depends on the degree and velocity of photosynthesis decline during water depletion. [3]

OXS2 is Required for Salt Tolerance Mainly through Associating with Salt Inducible Genes, CA1 and Araport11, in Arabidopsis

Salt stress is one among the abiotic stresses affecting crop growth and yield. The functional screening and mechanism investigation of the genes in response to salt stress are essential for the event of salt-tolerant crops. Here, we found that OXIDATIVE STRESS 2 (OXS2) was a salinity-induced gene, and therefore the mutant oxs2-1 was hypersensitive to salt stress during seed germination and root elongation processes. within the absence of stress, OXS2 was predominantly localized within the cytoplasm; when the plants were treated with salt, OXS2 entered the nuclear. Further RNA-seq analysis and qPCR identification showed that, within the presence of salt stress, an outsized number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were activated, which contain BOXS2 motifs previously identified because the binding element for AtOXS2. [4]

Sunflower Seed-priming with Phosphate Salts and Seedling Growth under Salt Stress

Aims: it had been assumed that halo-priming process under salinity stress may believe phosphorus nutrient source. Nutrient priming of seeds of sunflower seeds could also be beneficial for growth of seedlings under salt stress.

Study Design: Laid out the experiment in Complete Randomized Design, using NaCl @ 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mM on prime seeds from two sources of phosphorus salts in quadruplication.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in laboratory of Soil Salinity Research Programme of natural resource Research Institute at National Agricultural research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan during the amount from July to September, 2016. [5]

Reference

[1] Zhu, J.K., 2003. Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress. Current opinion in plant biology, 6(5), (Web Link)

[2] Xiong, L., Schumaker, K.S. and Zhu, J.K., 2002. Cell signaling during cold, drought, and salt stress. The plant cell, 14(suppl 1), (Web Link)

[3] Chaves, M.M., Flexas, J. and Pinheiro, C., 2009. Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Annals of botany, 103(4), (Web Link)

[4] OXS2 is Required for Salt Tolerance Mainly through Associating with Salt Inducible Genes, CA1 and Araport11, in Arabidopsis
Ying Jing, Lin Shi, Xin Li, Han Zheng, Jianwei Gao, Mei Wang, Lilong He & Wei Zhang
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] uz-Zaman, B.-, Ali, A., Akram, M., Ali Mahmood, I., Arshadullah, M. and Tabassam, T. (2017) “Sunflower Seed-priming with Phosphate Salts and Seedling Growth under Salt Stress”, Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, 3(4), (Web Link)

 

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