Latest Research News on Animal Nutrition : Nov 2020
Applied animal nutrition. The use of feed-stuffs in the formulation of livestock rations
The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the theory of animal nutrition and the practice of livestock feeding. The subject matter is divided into four main sections, plus appendices. Section I deals with the terms and expressions used in describing feeding-stuffs. Section II is concerned with the nutritional requirements of animals, with special attention to the biological basis for feeding standards. Section III gives a useful classification of feeding-stuffs, based mainly on protein content. Section IV integrates the subject matter of the previous sections and shows how feeding standards are used to formulate rations. G.F.S. 
Glucosinolates in animal nutrition: A review
Glucosinolates (Gls) are secondary plant metabolites that occur in all Brassica-originated feeds and fodders. Content and composition of Gls vary due to plant species, agronomic practices and climatic conditions. The Gls content is generally higher in rapeseed meal (RSM) varieties grown under tropical environment than those occur in temperate regions. The RSM from Indian sub-continent contain primarily 3-butenyl, 2-propenyl and 4-pentenyl glucosinolates. But 2-propenyl glucosinolate accounts more than 0.95 of their total glucosinolates present in RSM of European and other temperate countries, and did not contain 4-pentenyl glucosinolates. Depending on the pH, cofactors and Gls content and composition of RSM, major metabolites of glucosinolates are thiocyanates (SCN), isothiocyanates (ITC), nitriles, 5-vinyl-2-oxazolidinethione (VOT) and 5-vinyl-1,3-oxyzolodine-2-thione (5-VOT). Apart from total glucosinolate (TGls) content SCN, nitriles and VOT estimates are the chief attribute of RSM quality as these are produced upon hydrolysis of Gls following the processing of RSM. Major deleterious effects of glucosinolates ingestion in animals are reduced palatability, decreased growth and production. Progoitrin and epi-progoitrin impair palatability at a level between 2.3 and 4.65 μmol g−1 diet, while at higher levels feed intake decreases. Nitriles are known to affect liver and kidney functions. The thiocyanates interfere with iodine availability, whereas VOT is responsible for the morphological and physiological changes of thyroid. Difference in Gls profile among the RSM induces varying levels of glucosinolates metabolites in animal tissues. Rapeseed meal feeding did not impair quality traits of carcass and increased unsaturated fatty acids (C22:2 and trans C18:1) content in carcass and milk fat. Ruminants are less sensitive to dietary glucosinolates. Pigs are more severely affected by dietary glucosinolate compared to rabbit, poultry and fish. The tolerance level (μmol g−1 diet) of TGls in ruminants, pig, rabbits, poultry and fish is 1.5–4.22, 0.78, 7.0, 5.4 and 3.6 μmol, respectively. Water extraction, heat and CuSO4 treatments were found suitable for RSM quality improvement. Iodine supplementation in the diet of pigs (1.0 mg kg−1) and ruminants (500 mg I each kg RSM) seems promising because of economic and easiness compared to other treatments. Therefore, a desired amount of RSM can be used for animal feed formulation adopting a suitable technology to minimize or remove Gls-related deleterious effects on animals. 
Probiotics in animal nutrition and health
The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided. 
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott as an Alternative Energy Source in Animal Nutrition
Aims: This review was undertaken to examine the potential use of taro (Colocasia esculenta) and its by-products as an alternative energy source for feeding animals.
Previous Study: Previous studies indicated that raw sundried taro meal contained about 87.90-90.57 percent dry matter, about 4.93-7.07 crude protein, 2.70-3.90 percent crude fibre, 2956 – 2966 (Kcal/kg) metabolisable energy. Taro is not a common food for man, and its use in animal nutrition is however limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as oxalates, saponin, phytate, and tannins.
Conclusion: Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is a less well known source of energy which is not in great demand for human food. The use of taro (Colocasia esculenta) in animal nutrition should be maximally exploited as a way of reducing the competition between man and animals for maize utilization, since the quantity of grains produced in tropical Africa is not sufficient to feed the increasing human population. Heat treatment and protein supplementation are however recommended for optimal use of Colocasia esculenta in animal nutrition. 
Nutritional Composition of Ten Ethnobotanicals Used for the Treatment of Anaemia in Southwest Nigeria
Aim: Ethnobotanical investigation revealed that Parquetina nigrescens, Sorghum bicolor, Terminalia catappa, Trema orientalis, Mangifera indica, Waltheria indica, Theobroma cacao, Harungana madagascariensis, Tetracera alnifolia and Detarium microcarpum are used traditionally for the treatment of anaemia in southwestern Nigeria. This study screened the plants for their proximate constituents and phytochemical compounds to provide scientific details for their therapeutic use for the treatment of anaemia.
Study Design: Proximate and phytochemical analyses of ten ethnobotanicals.
Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Botany, Pharmacognosy and Animal Nutrition, University of Ibadan, between January and September, 2010.
Methodology: Proximate and phytochemical analyses of plant parts of ten ethnobotanicals were carried out using standard laboratory methods. Data were analysed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Differences between means were assessed for significance at p<0.05 by Duncan’s Multiple range test (DMRT).
Results: The habits of the tested plants were 60% trees, 30% shrubs and 10% herbs. The use-value of plant parts were 60% barks and 40% leaves. The highest value (19.95%) of crude protein was recorded for P. nigrescens. S. bicolor showed significantly (P < 0.05) high content of crude fibre (30.00%) and highest dry matter was obtained from T. cacao and T. catappa. Anthraquinones were present in Harungana madagascariensis, Theobroma cacao, Mangifera indica and Waltheria indica, 70% of the test plants contained tannins, and cardiac glycosides were present in all plant samples. This study, thus confirms the nutritional potential of the test plants in addition to their active phytochemical constituents. Their nutrients might complement the active phytocompounds in therapeutic activities.
Conclusion: It was concluded that there is need for the isolation and identification of the active compounds responsible for their antianaemic activities. Furthermore P. nigrescens, M. indica and T. cacao could be used as food supplements in weaning food because of their significant crude protein and fibre constituents in addition to their therapeutic potential. 
 Crampton, E.W., 1956. Applied animal nutrition. The use of feed-stuffs in the formulation of livestock rations. Applied animal nutrition. The use of feed-stuffs in the formulation of livestock rations.
 Tripathi, M.K. and Mishra, A.S., 2007. Glucosinolates in animal nutrition: A review. Animal feed science and technology, 132(1-2), pp.1-27.
 Chaucheyras-Durand, F. and Durand, H., 2010. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health. Beneficial microbes, 1(1), pp.3-9.
 Adejumo, I. O., Babalola, T. O. and Alabi, O. O. (2013) “Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott as an Alternative Energy Source in Animal Nutrition”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 3(4), pp. 1276-1285. doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2013/4945.
 Gbadamosi, I. T., Moody, J. O. and Yekini, A. O. (2012) “Nutritional Composition of Ten Ethnobotanicals Used for the Treatment of Anaemia in Southwest Nigeria”, European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2(2), pp. 140-150. doi: 10.9734/EJMP/2012/1025.