Latest Research News on Boko Haram : May 2022

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Latest Research News on Boko Haram : May 2022

May 16, 2022 AGRICULTURE 0

The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria

From the 1980 Maitatsine uprising to the 2009 Boko Haram up-rising, Nigeria was bedevilled by ethno-religious conflicts with devastating human and material losses. But the Boko Haram uprising of July 2009 was significant in that it not only set a precedent, but also reinforced the attempts by Islamic conservative elements at imposing a variant of Islamic religious ideology on a secular state. Whereas the religious sensitivity of Nigerians provided fertile ground for the breeding of the Boko Haram sect, the sect’s blossoming was also aided by the prevailing economic dislocation in Nigerian society, the advent of party politics (and the associated desperation of politicians for political power), and the ambivalence of some vocal Islamic leaders, who, though they did not actively embark on insurrection, either did nothing to stop it from fomenting, or only feebly condemned it. These internal factors coupled with growing Islamic fundamentalism around the world make a highly volatile Nigerian society prone to violence, as evidenced by the Boko Haram uprising. Given the approach of the Nigerian state to religious conflict, this violence may remain a recurring problem. This paper documents and analyses the Boko Haram uprising, as well as its links with the promotion of Islamic revivalism and the challenges it poses to the secularity of the Nigerian state. [1]

Boko Haram: understanding the context

Boko Haram insurgency has caused the death and displacement of thousands of Nigerians. Its means of terror has evolved from the use of crude weapons to bombs, kidnappings and the use of children as suicide bombers. Its reach has expanded beyond Nigeria into neighbouring West African countries and it has pledged allegiance to Al-Qaida and Islamic State. To address this security concern, its cause should first be ascertained. This paper argues that to do this, Boko Haram should be located in northern Nigerian historical context/environment. This paper reviews economic greed and grievance, extreme religious ideology and political opportunity in historic insurgencies in northern Nigeria. It finds that while the interplay of different factors shaped these insurgencies; it was political opportunity that ignited their onsets. Finally, the article submits that as long as these factors remain the same, military quelling of Boko Haram will not prevent a re-emergence of its likes. [2]

The Boko Haram Uprising: how should Nigeria respond?

Since the execution of Osama bin Laden and a few other al-Qaeda kingpins, the incidence of international terrorism seems to be on the decline and the ‘war on terror’ has been applauded as a huge success, with some even arguing that terrorism will fizzle out sooner rather than later. But recent experiences in Nigeria and some other African states reveal that, while global terrorism may be on the decline, the proliferation and radicalisation of local terrorist groups with possible links to al-Qaeda seem to be on the rise. The quest for effective counter-terrorism therefore continues. This article interrogates how Nigeria should respond to the Boko Haram terrorist uprising. Methodologically it relies on both primary and secondary sources of data. It provides an overview of the evolution and dynamics of the uprising in Nigeria, and explores the motivations, strategic operations and responses of Boko Haram. The article shows that the uprising, which engenders general insecurity, is a consequence of governance failure and institutional fragility. Thus, it concludes that, to effectively address the uprising, Nigeria should adopt a human security approach rather than the current emphasis on a repressive state security approach. [3]

Effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on the Productivity of Local Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

The negative effect of Boko Haram insurgency in the North East Nigeria continues to be a source of worry to all and sundry. The main thrust of this research is to examine the effect of the sect activities on output status of peasant farmers in selected localities in Adamawa state. Three hundred and thirty-three (330) questionnaires were distributed to the target population. Both descriptive and inferential analysis was used in the research. Logit Model was used to determine the productivity of local farmers in the study area. The findings showed that, all the coefficients are statistically significant from 1 to 10% (0.000, 0.034 and 0.087). The major findings showed that: Peasant farmers experience decrease in their productivity, decline in the income of local farmers in the affected areas. Majority of the farmers in the affected areas are women farmers in the affected areas and could no longer access credit facilities. Government could no longer provide farm input subsidy as a result of fear of unknown. The researchers among others recommended that; there is an urgent need for Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to step into the issue of farm input subsidy and increase the provision of credit facilities, special agricultural program and policies are to be initiated in order to resuscitate agricultural potentials of the affected zone.[4]

Corruption and the Challenge of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria: A Case of the Nigerian Armed Forces

The study examines the extent to which corruption in the Nigerian armed forces has been able to undermine the fight against Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria. The study relied on the qualitative content analysis of secondary sources of data, and the theory of structural functionalism was adopted as the tool of analysis for the study. A thrust through the evolution and acts of terror of Boko Haram in Nigeria revealed that poverty, inequality, and corruption precipitated the rise of the sect and that Abubakar Shekau adopted a more extremist doctrine and approach for the sect after the death of Mohammed Yusuf in 2009. Since then it has been mayhem for Nigeria; the sect accounting for over 20,000 deaths and the displacement of over 1.3 million people. The paper argued that corruption has eaten deep into the Nigerian armed forces and has undermined the fight against Boko Haram through the theft of defence appropriations, the purchase of substandard weaponry, the creation of fake defence contracts, and the unavailability of logistical supports for and desertion of soldiers on the frontline. The paper, therefore, recommends the adoption of genuine political will in the anti-graft war and the strengthening of existing anti-graft agencies, the diligent monitoring of defence contracts and the performance of offsets arrangements in defence contracts, the introduction of socio-economic empowerment programs to create employment for unemployed youths particularly in the Northeast, and the prompt provision of adequate military logistics and sophisticated arms and ammunition for the soldiers on the frontline.[5]

Reference

[1] Adesoji, A., 2010. The boko haram uprising and Islamic revivalism in Nigeria. Africa spectrum, 45(2), pp.95-108.

[2] Iyekekpolo, W.O., 2016. Boko Haram: understanding the context. Third World Quarterly, 37(12), pp.2211-2228.

[3] Aghedo, I. and Osumah, O., 2012. The Boko Haram uprising: how should Nigeria respond?. Third world quarterly, 33(5), pp.853-869.

[4] Sidney, A.E., Hayatudeen, S.Z. and Kwajafa, A.P., 2017. Effect of Boko Haram insurgency on the productivity of local farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, pp.1-7.

[5] Duke, O.O., Agbaji, D.D. and Bassey, O., 2017. Corruption and the challenge of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria: A case of the Nigerian Armed Forces. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, pp.1-20.

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