Latest Research News on Cooperative Learning : Feb 2022
Research on classroom cooperative learning techniques, in which students work in small groups and receive rewards or recognition based on their group performance, has been increasing in the past few years. This review summarizes the results of 28 primary field projects lasting at least 2 weeks, in which cooperative learning methods were used in elementary or secondary classrooms. The pattern of research findings supports the utility of cooperative learning methods in general for increasing student achievement, positive race relations in desegregated schools, mutual concern among students, student self-esteem, and other positive outcomes. The various cooperative learning methods are contrasted in terms of characteristics and outcomes, and the next steps for research in this area are outlined.
An Introduction to Cooperative Learning Research
Why have we humans been so successful as a species? We are not strong like tigers, big like elephants, protectively colored like lizards, or swift like gazelles. We are intelligent, but an intelligent human alone in the forest would not survive for long. What has really made us such successful animals is our ability to apply our intelligence to cooperating with others to accomplish group goals. From the primitive hunting group to the corporate boardroom, it is those of us who can solve problems while working with others who succeed. In fact, in modern society, cooperation in face-to-face groups is increasingly important. A successful scientist must be able to cooperate effectively with other scientists, with technicians, and with students. An executive must cooperate with other executives, salespersons, suppliers, and superiors. Of course, each of those relationships also has competitive elements, but in all of them, if the participants cannot cooperate to achieve a common goal, all lose out. It is difficult to think of very many adult activities in which the ability to cooperate with others is not important. Human society is composed of overlapping cooperative groups: families, neighborhoods, work groups, political parties, clubs, teams.
COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES
This chapter describes the concept of cooperative learning strategies. By interacting with one another, students can improve their acquisition of academic knowledge and skills. Such interaction among students, based on equal partnership in the learning experience as opposed to a fixed teacher/learner or tutor/tutee role, has been termed cooperative learning. This type of learning appears to foster two potent activities: active processing of the information and cross modeling/imitation. The chapter discusses a research program that was designed to remedy drawbacks of prior cooperative learning studies by systematically analyzing the effects of learning strategies and individual differences on the acquisition of scientific knowledge and learning skills in the context of a dyadic learning situation. Student dyads were chosen as the unit of analysis because larger groups make it more difficult to delineate processing and interaction parameters and they may promote the formation of coalitions, thus encouraging competition rather than cooperation. The cooperative learning strategy used in the present research was originally developed as an individual text learning strategy. This strategy was modified for use in a dyadic learning situation. In general, the strategy requires each pair member to read approximately 500 words of a 2,500-word passage. One pair member then serves as recaller and attempts to orally summarize from emory what has been learned. The other member of the pair serves as the listener/facilitator and attempts to correct errors in the recall and to further facilitate the organization and storage of the material. The partners alternate roles of recaller and listener/facilitator.
Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research
Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has grown rapidly over the last three decades as research has been published that clearly demonstrates how it can be used to promote achievements in reading and writing, conceptual development in science, problem-solving in mathematics, and higher level thinking and reasoning. It has also been shown to promote inter-personal relationships with students with diverse learning and adjustments needs and with those from culturally and ethnically different backgrounds. In fact, Johnson and Johnson (2000) argue there is no other pedagogical practice that achieves such outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on cooperative learning and to examine the factors that contribute to its success. In particular, the review focuses on the key elements that underpin successful cooperative learning, including group structure, composition and task, and the key role teachers’ play in developing students’ thinking and learning. The intention is to provide insights on how teachers can effectively utilize this pedagogical approach to teaching and learning in their classrooms.
Cooperative learning: Review of research and practice
Cooperative learning is widely recognised as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks – goals and tasks that they would be unable to complete by themselves. The purpose of this paper is to review developments in research and practice on cooperative learning and to examine the factors that help to explain its success. In particular, the review focuses on the key elements that contribute to its success and the role teachers play in developing students’ thinking and learning when implementing this pedagogical practice in their classrooms.
 Slavin, R.E., 1980. Cooperative learning. Review of educational research, 50(2), pp.315-342.
 Slavin, R.E., 1985. An introduction to cooperative learning research. In Learning to cooperate, cooperating to learn (pp. 5-15). Springer, Boston, MA.
 Dansereau, D.F., 1988. Cooperative learning strategies. In Learning and study strategies (pp. 103-120). Academic Press.
 Gillies, R.M., 2014. Cooperative learning: Developments in research. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 3(2), pp.125-140.
 Gillies, R.M., 2016. Cooperative learning: Review of research and practice. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 41(3), pp.39-54.