Latest Research News on Corneal : July -2020
APPLANATION TONOMETRY AND CENTRAL CORNEAL THICKNESS
Readings with the Goldmann applanation tonometer were made at various intraocular hydrostatic pressures and compared with central corneal thickness and radius in rabbit and in man. Linear correlations were established between hydrostatic pressure and applanation readings, with correlation coefficients close to 1.0. In rabbits the tonometer readings were generally too low. 
Corneal nerves: structure, contents and function
This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the structure, neurochemical content, and functions of corneal nerves, with special emphasis on human corneal nerves. A revised interpretation of human corneal nerve architecture is presented based on recent observations obtained by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural analyses of serial-sectioned human corneas. Current data on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide contents of corneal nerves are discussed, as are the mechanisms by which corneal neurochemicals and associated neurotrophins modulate corneal physiology, homeostasis and wound healing. 
Centering corneal surgical procedures
Currently used methods for centering corneal surgical procedures emphasize the visual axis of the eye but do not define it properly. We obtained the best optical result by centering the surgical procedure on the line of sight and entrance pupil of the eye, not on the visual axis. We found an error of 0.5 to 0.8 mm in currently used methods of marking the visual axis, which arose from the use of the corneal light reflex as a sighting point or from inadvertent monocular sighting in techniques requiring binocular sighting. Proper centering requires the patient to fixate on a point that is coaxial with the surgeon’s sighting eye, and the cornea is marked at the point in line with the center of the patient’s entrance pupil, ignoring the corneal light reflex. 
Photochemical Kinetic Modeling for Oxygen-enhanced UV-light-activated Corneal Collagen Crosslinking
Aims: To derive analytic formulas for the efficacy of type-II corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) based on coupled macroscopic kinetic equations with an emphasis on the role of oxygen.
Study Design: modeling and analysis of type-II CXL
Place and Duration of Study: Taipei, Taiwan, between Feb. and June 2017.
Methodology: Coupled macroscopic kinetic equations are derived under the quasi-steady state condition. For type-I CXL, the riboflavin triplet state [RF3] interacts directly with the stroma collagen substrate for crosslinking. For type-II process, [RF3] interacts with the ground-state oxygen [O2] to form a reactive oxygen singlet (ROS) which can relax to [O2], or interact with the extracellular matrix for crosslinking. 
Corneal Endothelial Cell Density and Morphology in Nigerians
AIM: To determine the mean density and describe the morphology of corneal endothelial cells in adult Nigerians in Port Harcourt.
Study Design: A population-based cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration: A study conducted among adult Nigerians aged ≥ 18 years in Port Harcourt city Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria between January and April 2014. 
 Ehlers, N., Bramsen, T. and Sperling, S., 1975. Applanation tonometry and central corneal thickness. Acta ophthalmologica, 53(1), pp.34-43.
 Müller, L.J., Marfurt, C.F., Kruse, F. and Tervo, T.M., 2003. Corneal nerves: structure, contents and function. Experimental eye research, 76(5), pp.521-542.
 Uozato, H. and Guyton, D.L., 1987. Centering corneal surgical procedures. American journal of ophthalmology, 103(3 I), pp.264-275.
 Lin, J.T., 2017. Photochemical kinetic modeling for oxygen-enhanced UV-light-activated corneal collagen crosslinking. Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, pp.1-8.
 Ani, E.U., Nwosu, S.N., Pedro-Egbe, C.N., Cookey, S.A. and Awoyesuku, E.A., 2016. Corneal Endothelial Cell Density and Morphology in Nigerians. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-8.