Latest Research News on Ecology : Dec 2021
Systems ecology; An introduction
The purposes of this book are to help in: (1) teaching the nature and theory of systems, (2) introducing the systems ecology, (3) introducing systems of nature of many scales of sizes in a comparative way, (4) using energy language to generalize the compare systems of nature and humans, (5) teaching systems languages and modeling approaches to understanding systems, (6) unifying concepts of kinetics, dynamics, energetics, environment, and economics, (7) presenting evidence, for generality of energy hierarchy, energy quality, maximum power selection, and pulsing control, (8) introducing theory of energy analysis, and (9) seeking a more rigorous and holistic way to introduce and unify general ecology.
Ecology of the plastisphere
The plastisphere, which comprises the microbial community on plastic debris, rivals that of the built environment in spanning multiple biomes on Earth. Although human-derived debris has been entering the ocean for thousands of years, microplastics now numerically dominate marine debris and are primarily colonized by microbial and other microscopic life. The realization that this novel substrate in the marine environment can facilitate microbial dispersal and affect all aquatic ecosystems has intensified interest in the microbial ecology and evolution of this biotope. Whether a ‘core’ plastisphere community exists that is specific to plastic is currently a topic of intense investigation. This Review provides an overview of the microbial ecology of the plastisphere in the context of its diversity and function, as well as suggesting areas for further research. 
Strategy as ecology
Microsoft’s and Wal-Mart’s preeminence in modern business has been attributed to any number of factors–from the vision and drive of their founders to the companies’ aggressive competitive practices. But the authors maintain that the success realized by these two very different companies is due only partly to the organizations themselves; a bigger factor is the success of the networks of companies with which Microsoft and Wal-Mart do business. Most companies today inhabit ecosystems–loose networks of suppliers, distributors, and outsourcers; makers of related products or services; providers of relevant technology; and other organizations that affect, and are affected by, the creation and delivery of a company’s own offering. Despite being increasingly central to modern business, ecosystems are still poorly understood and even more poorly managed. The analogy between business networks and biological ecosystems can aid this understanding by vividly highlighting certain pivotal concepts. The moves that a company makes will, to varying degrees, affect the health of its business network, which in turn will ultimately affect the organization’s performance–for ill as well as for good. Because a company, like an individual species in a biological ecosystem, ultimately shares its fate with the network as a whole, smart firms pursue strategies that will benefit everyone. So how can you promote the health and the stability of your own ecosystem, determine your place in it, and develop a strategy to match your role, thereby helping to ensure your company’s well-being? It depends on your role–current and potential–within the network. Is your company a niche player, a keystone, or a dominator? The answer to this question may be different for different parts of your business. It may also change as your ecosystem changes. Knowing what to do requires understanding the ecosystem and your organization’s role in it. 
The Abiotic Ecology and Prevalence of Palaemonid Shrimps (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) of Osse River, Edo State, Nigeria
Aims: To assess the relationship between the abundance of palaemonid shrimps and variation of the abiotic ecology of the river.
Study Design: Factorial design.
Place and Duration of Study: Osse River, Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. April to December, 2015.
Methodology: Samples were collected between April and December, 2015; at night and early morning periods. All samples were collected from all stations on monthly basis to cover some part of rainy and dry seasons i.e. from April to December, 2015. Sex distribution pattern amongst the shrimp species and the ratio of male to female distribution for each species was analyzed mathematically. The sex variations across the stations were further analyzed using the Student’s T-test followed by a test of homogeneity of variance using Bartlett’s F-test. The physical parameters of the water were assessed using standard methods while the chemical parameters were determined by using Hydro-lab water quality meter Electronic Probe, Hanna.
Results: A total of 397 individuals, comprising 138 M. macrobrachion, 168 M. vollenhovenii, 27 M. felicinium, 29 M. lux, 24 N. hastatus and 11 P. maculatus were observed in the study area. Availability of the shrimps was: M. vollenhovenii > M. macrobrachion > M. lux > M. fellicinium > N. hastatus > P. maculatus. This conforms to the observations of Adebola and Olaniyan  but at variance with the observations of Eniade and Bello-Olusoji . Population of the female shrimps outnumbered the male in all the species captured. The depth of the aquatic environment had significant negative correlations with M. macrobrachion (-0.54), M. vollenhovenii (-0.67), M. felicinium (-0.77), M. lux (-0.86), N. hastatus (-0.92), and P. maculatus (-0.85). This implies that depth is a major factor which must have influenced the abundance of the shrimps in the river. There was a significant positive correlation between nitrate and numbers of M. vollenhovenii (0.69), N. hastatus (0.56), and P. maculatus (0.73). Results show that abiotic factors such as pH (6.7- 7.5), temperature (27.5 – 28.2°C), depth (24.5 – 121 cm), and primary productivity nutrients are the major determining factors to the survival of the palaemonid shrimps. Higher cultivability was observed in M. vollenhovenii; followed by M. macrobrachion due their higher resistance to variability in the abiotic factors, this might be due to their relatively higher adaptability to tough conditions. Simulation of the values obtained at Station 2 of the study area is quite feasible and may generate optimal results in shrimp aquaculture.
Conclusion: Results show that Palaemonid shrimps are littoral organisms which are quite cultivable; particularly M. vollenhovenii and M. macrobrachion. They thrive under abiotic characteristics that can be simulated in captivity. Husbandry of the identified species in an artificial culture environment is quite feasible by consciously simulating the abiotic factors obtained at the most suitable location (Station 2). We however recommend further research into biology and feeding habits of palaemons. Result of this study has provided some information to support artificial breeding of the palaemonid shrimps for biological control of schistosomiasis and shrimp entrepreneurship.
Ecological Study of Carduus pycnocephalus L. Weed and Associated Species in Hamedan Province, Iran
Slender thistle is one of the species of Asteraceae. It is native to: In the Mediterranean region of southern Europe, North Africa, West Asia, East Europe, Caucasus and the Indian subcontinent are scattered. This study carried out for determination associated species on intraspecific variation of Carduus pycnocephalus L. (Italian Thistle) in Hamedan Province (Iran).In this order, vegetation studied to D.S.S method (Determination of Special Station). Based on, 14 special stations for this species were determined. In this investigation, 59 plant species distinguished as associated species that belonging to 53 genera and 19 families. Among the families, Asteraceae and Poaceae have many species. Most of this species are weed plant. The most life form spectrum showed Therophyte that reflects the region’s dry climate. Spectrum of plant species is as follow: Hemichryptophyte forms of the plants indicate the possibility of adaptation of Maditerranean and cold temperate affected them. Decreasing of Chamephytes and Hemicryptophytes species and lacking geophytes Indicates a weakening of the vegetation in this area.
 Odum, H.T., 1983. Systems Ecology; an introduction.
 Amaral-Zettler, L.A., Zettler, E.R. and Mincer, T.J., 2020. Ecology of the plastisphere. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 18(3), pp.139-151.
 Iansiti, M. and Levien, R., 2004. Strategy as ecology. Harvard business review, 82(3), pp.68-78.
 Omoregie, I.P., 2016. The abiotic ecology and prevalence of palaemonid shrimps (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) of Osse River, Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, pp.1-11.
 Heidarian, M., Masoumi, S.M. and Atri, M., 2015. Ecological Study of Carduus pycnocephalus L. Weed and Associated Species in Hamedan Province, Iran. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, pp.71-78.