Latest Research News on Rise of China : July -2020
Japan’s shifting strategy toward the rise of China
After examining different theoretical expectations of how Japan might respond strategically to the rise of China, this article analyzes the evolution of Japan’s policy toward China from 1972 to 2006. It argues that Japan has shifted away from the ‘friendship diplomacy’ paradigm to a mixed strategy that involves both positive engagement and realistic balancing to hedge against the potential threats that China may pose in the future. Japan is engaged in a vigorous domestic debate about China policy that centers around four options: cooperative engagement with a soft hedge, competitive engagement with a hard hedge, balancing and containment, and strategic accommodation. The current mixed strategy of engagement and hedging is consistent with different theoretical traditions such as offensive realism, defensive realism, and liberalism. Future developments such as Japan–China interactive effects, shifts in the military power balance, and changes in US strategy, however, could steer Japan to make choices that point in a certain theoretical direction as opposed to others. 
A harmonized Southeast Asia? Explanatory typologies of ASEAN countries’ strategies to the rise of China
In the face of a rising China, some scholars have argued that ASEAN countries will choose to either bandwagon with or balance against China, while others believe they will respond with a more moderate policy known as ‘hedging’. In considering these options, ASEAN countries must take into account their individual interests within the economic and security structure of this region. In this research, we argue that each ASEAN country confronts divergent sets of security and economic relations with China, which play a major role in shaping their policy responses. We can characterize their responses into four quadrants. Each cell can be categorized in terms of a high or low degree of threat perception (HT or LT) from China, as well as a positive or negative economic expectation (PE or NE) with China. We thus hypothesize that ASEAN countries in the HT–NE situation will balance against China; those in the LT–PE situation will bandwagon with China; those in the HT–PE or LT–NE situations will hedge against China. Hypotheses are supported by three case studies, Vietnam–China (HT–NE), Cambodia–China (LT–PE) and Singapore–China (HT–PE) relations. 
The Rise of China
China’s relentless economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s heralded its emergence as a great power in world politics. As its economy expanded, China seemed poised to become the second-largest economy in the world. At the same time, it modernized its military and adopted a more assertive diplomatic posture. Many observers have begun to debate the international implications of China’s rise. Some analysts argue that China will inevitably pose a threat to peace and security in East Asia. A few even predict a new cold war between Beijing and Washington. Others claim that a powerful China can remain benign. None believes that China can be ignored. The essays in this volume assess China’s emerging capabilities and intentions, debate the impact that China will have on security in the Asia-Pacific region, and propose polices for the United States to adopt in its relations with China. 
The Rise of China: The Emergence of a Bipolar Superpower and the Implication for the Future of International Law
With the continuing rise and influence of China in the international system, the world is gradually transforming from a unipolar world to a bipolar world. A critical analysis of recent events happening in the world suggests a decline in the power of the USA while China, on the other hand, has over the years embarked on numerous measures to strengthen its military and economic might in the international system.
This article contributes to existing knowledge and literature by giving a comprehensive view of events that suggests the decline in the power of the USA, as well as measures that China has over the years embarked on to increase its influence in the international system such as “ the One belt One road” initiative.
The methodology adopted for the study is the qualitative approach of which the works of scholars that focus on the rise of China was analyzed and reviewed. Materials used include information from the internet, journal articles and policy documents.
The article gives a picture of the possible implications that the emergence of a bipolar world due to the rise of China will have on the practice and application of international law and concludes by suggesting that with the current global challenges of the world such as terrorism, the massive inflow of refugees, the need for a general consensus on policies to protect the ecology etc. bipolarity is the best way to deal with such challenges. Thus, if the USA and China are to collaborate and corporate effectively with one another, the challenges of the world could be efficiently dealt with. It is thus recommended that the two countries bury their ideological difference and think of ways by which they could make international law stronger and effective to deal with the challenges that the world is confronted with. 
Beneath the Cover of China’s Rising Engagement in Africa: A Security Perspective
With the soaring increase in demand for oil owing to its rapid economic growth and expansion, coupled with her quest to build a strong and formidable security system, China has no option than to ensure her energy security. For a country whose oil consumption has been increasing yearly, the need to secure sustainable and affordable energy supplies is imperative. China’s policy of self-reliance with regard to energy security is no longer feasible. The country’s growing dependence on the global energy supplies and oil-rich countries such as Russia and the West Asia region has become complex. For a country that hopes to achieve greater economic progress and secure maximum economic growth for its people, securing energy supplies is very crucial, especially when every great and progressing country’s ultimate interest is to secure a place in the international community.
Using a historical comparative approach in analysing China’s growing engagement in Africa, the paper suggests that China’s rising interest on the continent is a strategic move to have a more reliable and secure energy supply without interruptions. China is very much aware of the United States’ hegemonic control in West Asia and the Middle East. With regard to oil supply from Russia, the stakes are high factoring in scepticism since it is only a tactical arrangement. China has, therefore, turned to Africa, especially in the oil producing countries like Angola and Sudan in hopes of balancing the security danger and threat it faces in its energy security domain. 
 Mochizuki, M.M., 2007. Japan’s shifting strategy toward the rise of China. Journal of Strategic Studies, 30(4-5), pp.739-776.
 Chen, I.T.Y. and Yang, A.H., 2013. A harmonized Southeast Asia? Explanatory typologies of ASEAN countries’ strategies to the rise of China. The Pacific Review, 26(3), pp.265-288.
 Brown, M.E., 2000. The rise of China (Vol. 1). The MIT Press.
 Hamid Kwarteng, A. and Atuahene, E. (2018) “The Rise of China: The Emergence of a Bipolar Superpower and the Implication for the Future of International Law”, Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 6(3), pp. 1-12. doi: 10.9734/ARJASS/2018/39838.
 Peasah Owusu, L. and Prehi Botchway, T. (2018) “Beneath the Cover of China’s Rising Engagement in Africa: A Security Perspective”, Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 7(1), pp. 1-16. doi: 10.9734/ARJASS/2018/42838.