Latest Research News on Streptococcus Mutans: Jan – 2020

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Latest Research News on Streptococcus Mutans: Jan – 2020

January 1, 2020 Microbiology 0

A selective medium for Streptococcus mutans

A selective medium was developed for the isolation of Streptococcus mutans from human bacterial plaque. Mitis-salivarius agar was modified by adding 0.2 units/ml bacitracin and by increasing the sucrose concentration to twenty per cent. At these concentrations, the selective agents allowed the undiminished recovery of Strep. mutans with maximum inhibition of the balance of the streptococcal flora normally encountered on this medium. Enterococci or yeasts were sometimes observed upon direct culturing of plaque samples from children with advanced dentinal lesions. [1]

Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen

Streptococcus mutans is that the leading explanation for cavity (tooth decay) worldwide and is taken into account to be the foremost cariogenic of all of the oral streptococci. The genome of S. mutans UA159, a serotype c strain, has been completely sequenced and consists of two,030,936 base pairs. It contains 1,963 ORFs, 63% of which are assigned putative functions. The genome analysis provides further insight into how S. mutans has adapted to surviving the oral environment through resource acquisition, defense against host factors, and use of gene products that maintain its niche against microbial competitors. S. mutans metabolizes a good sort of carbohydrates via nonoxidative pathways, and every one of those pathways are identified, along side the associated transport systems whose genes account for nearly 15% of the genome. [2]

Association of Streptococcus mutans with Human Dental Decay

The association of Streptococcus mutans with human dental decay was investigated by using several sorts of samples: (i) paraffin-stimulated saliva samples taken from children with from 0 to fifteen decayed teeth; (ii) pooled occlusal and approximal plaque taken from children with no decayed or filled teeth, or from children with rampant caries of 10 or more teeth; (iii) plaque faraway from single occlusal fissures that were either carious or noncarious. The results showed a big association between plaque levels of S. mutans and caries. The strongest association, P < 0.0001, was found when plaque was faraway from single occlusal fissures. Seventy-one percent of the carious fissures had S. mutans accounting for quite 10% of the viable flora, whereas 70% of the fissures that were caries free had no detectable S. mutans. [3]

Diversity of SpaP in genetic and salivary agglutinin mediated adherence among Streptococcus mutans strains

Streptococcus mutans SpaP mediates the binding of this cariogenic bacteria to tooth surfaces. it had been reported that the SpaP of S. mutans clinical isolates might be classified to 2 genotypes, A and B. Our aims are to look at spaP genotypes in often-used S. mutans laboratory strains also as clinical isolates and to explore the connection between the genotypes of S. mutans strains and their adherence to salivary-agglutinin (SAG). The sequences of SpaP of 11 S. mutans strains were analyzed with alignment tools. Out of those strains, 9 strains were examined for his or her adherence to SAG-coated surfaces. The SpaP expression on the cell surfaces and within the spent media of 9 strains were examined by a dot-blot assay. supported the alignment of the variable V region of SpaP, 9 strains were classified as previously-defined type-A and three strains type-B. [4]

In vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extract of Distemonanthus benthamianus (Aayan) Baillon (Fabaceae) on Streptococcus mutans

Objectives: the target of this research was to guage the antimicrobial potential of Distemonanthus benthamianus on Streptococcus mutans.

Methods: The antimicrobial activities of ethanol extract of Distemonanthus benthamianus was done on Streptococcus mutans using the agar well diffusion technique.

Results: The ethanol extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria with zones of inhibition between 15±0.1 mm to 20±0.2 mm at 6 mg/ml. The phytochemical analysis of the plant revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenol, steroids, and tannin. The MIC and MBC of the extract against the sensitive organisms decided and was within the range of 15.6 µg/ml to 1000 µg/ml and 31.25 µg/ml to 1000 µg/ml. The ratio of MIC to MBC falls within 1 and a couple of, which is a sign of the bactericidal activity of the plant extract. The kinetic study revealed a discount within the number of viable organisms with increase in touch time between the organisms and therefore the extract. [5]

Reference

[1] Gold, O.G., Jordan, H.V. and Van Houte, J., 1973. A selective medium for Streptococcus mutans. Archives of Oral Biology, 18(11), (Web Link)

[2] Ajdić, D., McShan, W.M., McLaughlin, R.E., Savić, G., Chang, J., Carson, M.B., Primeaux, C., Tian, R., Kenton, S., Jia, H. and Lin, S., 2002. Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(22), (Web Link)

[3] Loesche, W.J., Rowan, J., Straffon, L.H. and Loos, P.J., 1975. Association of Streptococcus mutans with human dental decay. Infection and immunity, 11(6), (Web Link)

[4] Diversity of SpaP in genetic and salivary agglutinin mediated adherence among Streptococcus mutans strains
Jingmei Yang, Dongmei Deng, Bernd W. Brandt, Kamran Nazmi, Yafei Wu, Wim Crielaard & Antoon J. M. Ligtenberg
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] Mebude, O. O., Adeniyi, B. A. and Lawal, T. O. (2017) “In vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extract of Distemonanthus benthamianus (Aayan) Baillon (Fabaceae) on Streptococcus mutans”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 22(1), (Web Link)

 

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