Latest Research News on Vaccination: Jan – 2020

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Latest Research News on Vaccination: Jan – 2020

January 3, 2020 Microbiology 0

Chitosan for mucosal vaccination

The striking advantage of mucosal vaccination is that the production of local antibodies at the sites where pathogens enter the body. Because vaccines alone aren’t sufficiently haunted after mucosal administration, they have to be co-administered with penetration enhancers, adjuvants or encapsulated in particles. Chitosan easily forms microparticles and nanoparticles which encapsulate large amounts of antigens like ovalbumin, diphtheria toxoid or tetanus toxoid. it’s been shown that ovalbumin loaded chitosan microparticles are haunted by the Peyer’s patches of the gut associated lymphatic tissue (GALT). This unique uptake demonstrates that chitosan particulate drug carrier systems are promising candidates for oral vaccination. Additionally, after co-administering chitosan with antigens in nasal vaccination studies, a robust enhancement of both mucosal and systemic immune responses is observed. [1]

Vaccines and Vaccination

More than 70 bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi are serious human pathogens.1 Vaccines are available against a number of these agents and are being developed against most the opposite bacteria and viruses and about half the parasites. Table 1 lists infections that there are now licensed vaccines and people that a candidate vaccine has undergone a phase 3 clinical test ,2 indicating that a vaccine will probably be licensed within 5 to 10 years.Traditionally, attenuated vaccines were made by repeated passaging of the infective agent in tissue culture or animal hosts until its virulence was greatly decreased but its. [2]

Correlates of Protection Induced by Vaccination

This paper attempts to summarize current knowledge about immune responses to vaccines that correlate with protection. Although the system is redundant, most current vaccines run through antibodies in serum or on mucosa that block infection or bacteremia/viremia and thus provide a correlate of protection. The functional characteristics of antibodies, also as quantity, are important. Antibody could also be highly correlated with protection or synergistic with other functions. Immune memory may be a critical correlate: effector memory for short-incubation diseases and central memory for long-incubation diseases. Cellular immunity acts to kill or suppress intracellular pathogens and should also synergize with antibody. for a few vaccines, we’ve no true correlates, but only useful surrogates, for an unknown protective response. [3]

Inducing Tumor Suppressive Microenvironments through Genome Edited CD47−/− Syngeneic Cell Vaccination

Tumors can shake the system by overexpressing CD47 and other checkpoint blockades. CD47 is expressed ubiquitously by all cells within the body, posing an obstacle for CD47 blocking treatments thanks to their systemic toxicity. We performed a study to work out how the tumor microenvironment changes after vaccination with genome edited CD47−/− syngeneic tumor cells. We discovered that inactivated CD47-depleted mouse melanoma cells can protect mice from melanoma. Our animal study indicated that 33% of vaccinated mice remained tumor-free, and 100% of mice had 5-fold reduced growth rates. [4]

Analysis of an Epidemic Model of Multiple Disease Transmission with Vaccination and Therapeutic Drug Regimen

In this paper we discuss a replacement epidemic model for the dynamics of communicable disease within the presence of vaccine and therapeutic treatment is proposed and analyzed theoretically also as numerically. The disease is transmitted from infected individuals and contaminated water to susceptible and vaccinated individuals, the proposed model includes a linear functional response. [5]

Reference

[1] Van der Lubben, I.M., Verhoef, J.C., Borchard, G. and Junginger, H.E., 2001. Chitosan for mucosal vaccination. Advanced drug delivery reviews, 52(2), (Web Link)

[2] Ada, G., 2001. Vaccines and vaccination. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(14), (Web Link)

[3] Plotkin, S.A., 2010. Correlates of protection induced by vaccination. Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 17(7), (Web Link)

[4] Inducing Tumor Suppressive Microenvironments through Genome Edited CD47−/− Syngeneic Cell Vaccination
Subhadra Jayaraman Rukmini, Huanjing Bi, Puloma Sen, Benjamin Everhart, Sha Jin & Kaiming Ye
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] Mustafa, A. N. and Fatah, S. M. (2018) “Analysis of an Epidemic Model of Multiple Disease Transmission with Vaccination and Therapeutic Drug Regimen”, Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science, 28(3), (Web Link)

 

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