Latest Research on ABO blood : July – 2020

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Latest Research on ABO blood : July – 2020

July 31, 2020 Medicine and Medical Science 0

The effect of ABO blood group on the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease

In order to firmly establish a normal range for von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag), we determined plasma vWF:Ag concentrations in 1,117 volunteer blood donors by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. The presence of the ABO blood group has a significant influence on vWF:Ag values; individuals with blood group O had the lowest mean vWF:Ag level (74.8 U/dL), followed by group A (105.9 U/dL), then group B (116.9 U/dL), and finally group AB (123.3 U/dL). Multiple regression analysis revealed that age significantly correlated with vWF:Ag levels in each blood group. We then performed reverse ABO typing on stored plasma from 142 patients with the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (vWd). Of 114 patients with type I vWd, blood group O was found in 88 (77%), group A in 21 (18%), group B in 5 (4%), and group AB in none (0%), whereas the frequency of these blood groups in the normal population is significantly different (45%, 45%, 7% and 3%, respectively) (P less than .001). Patients with type II or III vWd had ABO blood group frequencies that were not different from the expected distribution. There may be a subset of symptomatic vWd patients with decreased concentrations of structurally normal vWf (vWd, type I) on the basis of blood group O. Some individuals of blood group AB with a genetic defect of vWF may have the diagnosis overlooked because vWF levels are elevated due to blood type. [1]

 

ABO Blood Group and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer

Background

Other than several rare, highly penetrant familial syndromes, genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic cancer are largely unknown. ABO blood type is an inherited characteristic that in previous small studies has been associated with the risk of gastrointestinal malignancies.

Methods

We separately examined the relationship between ABO blood type and the risk of incident pancreatic cancer in two large, independent, prospective cohort studies (the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study) that collected blood group data on 107 503 US health professionals. Hazard ratios for pancreatic cancer by ABO blood type were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for other known risk factors, including age, tobacco use, body mass index, physical activity, and history of diabetes mellitus. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

During 927 995 person-years of follow-up, 316 participants developed pancreatic cancer. ABO blood type was associated with the risk of developing pancreatic cancer ( P = .004; log-rank test). Compared with participants with blood group O, those with blood groups A, AB, or B were more likely to develop pancreatic cancer (adjusted hazard ratios for incident pancreatic cancer were 1.32 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.02 to 1.72], 1.51 [95% CI = 1.02 to 2.23], and 1.72 [95% CI = 1.25 to 2.38], respectively). The association between blood type and pancreatic cancer risk was nearly identical in the two cohorts ( Pinteraction  = .97). Overall, 17% of the pancreatic cancer cases were attributable to inheriting a non-O blood group (blood group A, B, or AB). The age-adjusted incidence rates for pancreatic cancer per 100 000 person-years were 27 (95% CI = 23 to 33) for participants with blood type O, 36 (95% CI = 26 to 50) for those with blood type A, 41 (95% CI = 31 to 56) for those with blood type AB, and 46 (95% CI = 32 to 68) for those with blood type B.

Conclusions

In two large, independent populations, ABO blood type was statistically significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are necessary to define the mechanisms by which ABO blood type or closely linked genetic variants may influence pancreatic cancer risk. [2]

Liver transplantation across ABO blood group barriers

In a study of 234 liver transplants the 2-year graft survival for ABO-compatible elective (80%) or emergency (76%) liver transplants was significantly higher than that for ABO-incompatible emergency liver transplants (30%). The low survival of ABO-incompatible liver allografts was therefore not related to the emergency conditions. Among 17 patients who received ABO-incompatible liver allografts, primary humoral rejection, with haemorrhagic infiltration of portal tracts and deposition of IgM and fibrinogen on sinusoidal and endothelial cells, developed in 6. Other disadvantages of ABO-incompatible liver allografts were significantly higher frequencies of severe rejection crises, arterial thrombosis, and cholangitis. However, the 1-year survival rate of the patients who received ABO-incompatible grafts was 66%, so the use of ABO-incompatible liver grafts is justifiable in emergencies, when no other donor is available; such transplants may help to save the patient, even at the cost of retransplantation in half of the cases. [3]

Prevalence of Malaria Parasitaemia and Its Association with ABO Blood Grouping among Students of Igbinedion University Okada, Nigeria

This study was carried out to investigate ABO blood groups association with malaria parasitaemia among students of Igbinedion University, Okada located in Mid-Western Nigeria. Two milliliters (2ml) of venous blood was collected by venipuncture using 5ml hypodermic needles and syringes from 104 asymptomatic malaria students between March and June 2012. Blood samples were immediately dispensed into Ethylene Diamine Tetra-Acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulated containers and mixed appropriately. ABO blood typing using monoclonal Antisera A, B and D was carried out on samples. The malaria Plasmodium falciparumrapid Test Device (whole blood) package insert kit (BDH, England) was used to test for the presence of malaria parasites in the specimens. The 104 samples analyzed were made up of 24(23.1%) rhesus positive males, 76(73.0%) rhesus positive females and 4(3.9%) rhesus negative females. In increasing order, 4(3.9%), 16(15.4%), 32(30.8%) and 52(50.0%) students occurred in blood groups AB, A, B and O respectively. Forty (38.4%) of total group O subjects were infected with various densities of malaria trophozoites. Out of 32 blood group B individuals representing 30.8% of the total sampled students, 24(23.1%) were infected. All sampled 4(3.9%) AB students were infected. On the whole, 80(76.8%) of total samples processed, were positive for malaria parasitaemia. Twelve (11.5%) and 68(65.4%) of total male and female subjects were infected. Malaria parasitaemia seemed to be relatively high across all blood groups with groups O and AB subjects apparently recording the highest and least infection rates respectively. There was statistical significant association between malaria parasitaemia and ABO blood groups of both male and female students (P < 0.05) and between malaria parasitaemia and ABO blood groups of female students only (P < 0.05). The association of malaria parasitaemia and ABO blood groups of male students was not significant (P > 0.05). There was a statistical significant association of malaria parasitaemia and ABO blood groups among all students sampled and this association may be due to the significant association that occurred among the female students as shown by statistics. [4]

ABO and Rh Blood Group System and Periodontal Disease – A Prevalence Study

Background: Varied literature is documented exploring the relationship between ABO blood group and prevalence of oral and dental diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of periodontal disease with “ABO” blood groups and Rhesus factor.

Materials and Methods: A total of 684 systemically healthy subjects who were non smokers were selected by chance. Subjects with known blood group who had at least 20 teeth, were included in the study and the blood groups were confirmed from their medical records. Based on the periodontal parameters like clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) the subjects were divided into three groups: healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis. The percentage distribution of ABO blood groups and Rhesus factor among the groups was tabulated.

Results: There was an increased prevalence of gingivitis in subjects with blood group ‘A’ and periodontitis in subjects with blood group ‘O’, while subjects with blood group ‘B’ had healthy periodontium. There was higher prevalence of gingivitis in Rh positive group.

Conclusion: A significant relationship between blood typing and periodontal disease was determined in this study. Further research into this is indicated. [5]

 

Reference

[1] Gill, J.C., Endres-Brooks, J., Bauer, P.J., Marks, W.J. and Montgomery, R.R., 1987. The effect of ABO blood group on the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease.

[2] Wolpin, B.M., Chan, A.T., Hartge, P., Chanock, S.J., Kraft, P., Hunter, D.J., Giovannucci, E.L. and Fuchs, C.S., 2009. ABO blood group and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 101(6), pp.424-431.

[3] Gugenheim, J., Samuel, D., Bismuth, H. and Reynes, M., 1990. Liver transplantation across ABO blood group barriers. The Lancet, 336(8714), pp.519-523.

[4] Otajevwo, F. D. (2013) “Prevalence of Malaria Parasitaemia and Its Association with ABO Blood Grouping among Students of Igbinedion University Okada, Nigeria”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 3(4), pp. 1164-1177. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2013/1745.

[5] Anup, P., Siddhartha, V., Girish, S., Keshava, A., Sameer, Z. and Vishwajeet, K. (2016) “ABO and Rh Blood Group System and Periodontal Disease – A Prevalence Study”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 16(5), pp. 1-6. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24055.

 

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