Latest Research on Thyroid Cancer: Jan – 2020
Prognosis of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Relation to Serum Thyrotropin and Thyroglobulin Antibody Status at Time of Diagnosis
Background: Serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration and thyroid autoimmunity could also be of prognostic importance in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Preoperative serum TSH level has been related to higher DTC stage in cross-sectional studies; data are contradictory on the importance of thyroid autoimmunity at the time of diagnosis.
Objective: We sought to assess whether preoperative serum TSH and perioperative antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) were related to thyroid cancer stage and outcome in DTC patients followed by the National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study, an outsized multicenter thyroid cancer registry.
Methods: Patients registered after 1996 with available preoperative serum TSH (n=617; the TSH cohort) or perioperative TgAb status (n=1770; the TgAb cohort) were analyzed for tumor stage, persistent disease, recurrence, and overall survival (OS; median follow-up, 5.5 years). Parametric tests assessed log-transformed TSH, and categorical variables were tested with chi square. Disease-free survival (DFS) and OS was assessed with Cox models. 
BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer
Genetic alteration is that the drive for thyroid tumorigenesis and progression, based upon which novel approaches to the management of thyroid cancer are often developed. A recent important genetic finding in thyroid cancer is that the oncogenic T1799A transversion mutation of BRAF (the gene for the B-type Raf kinase, BRAF). Since the initial report of this mutation in thyroid cancer 2 years ago, rapid advancements are made. BRAF mutation is that the commonest genetic alteration in thyroid cancer, occurring in about 45% of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs), particularly within the relatively aggressive subtypes, like the tall-cell PTC. This mutation is mutually exclusive with other common genetic alterations, supporting its independent oncogenic role, as demonstrated by transgenic mouse studies that showed BRAF mutation-initiated development of PTC and its transition to anaplastic thyroid cancer. BRAF mutation is mutually exclusive with RET/PTC rearrangement, and also displays a reciprocal age association with this common genetic alteration in thyroid cancer. The T1799A BRAF mutation occurs exclusively in PTC and PTC-derived anaplastic thyroid cancer and may be a specific diagnostic marker for this cancer when identified in cytological and histological specimens. This mutation is related to a poorer clinicopathological outcome and may be a novel independent molecular prognostic marker within the risk evaluation of thyroid cancer. Moreover, preclinical and clinical evaluations of the therapeutic value of novel specific mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitors in thyroid cancer are anticipated. This newly discovered BRAF mutation may convince have a crucial impact on thyroid cancer within the clinic. 
Long-term impact of initial surgical and medical therapy on papillary and follicular thyroid cancer
purpose: to work out the long-term impact of medical and surgery of well differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid cancer.
methods: Patients with papillary and follicular cancer (n = 1,355) treated either in U.S. Air Force or Ohio State University hospitals over the past 40 years were prospectively followed by questionnaire or personal examination to work out treatment outcomes. Outcomes were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional-hazard regression model. 
Geographic influences in the global rise of thyroid cancer
The incidence of thyroid cancer is on the increase , and this disease is projected to become the fourth leading sort of cancer across the world . From 1990 to 2013, the worldwide age-standardized incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased by 20%. This global rise in incidence has been attributed to many factors, including increased detection of early tumours, the elevated prevalence of modifiable individual risk factors (for example, obesity) and increased exposure to environmental risk factors (for example, iodine levels). during this Review, we explore proven and novel hypotheses for a way modifiable risk factors and environmental exposures could be driving the worldwide increase within the incidence of thyroid cancer. 
Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Histopathological Review in Accra, Ghana
There is paucity of data on papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in Ghana. The aim of this study was to work out the relative proportions of thyroid malignancies diagnosed in our institution that were PTC, the trend and therefore the clinico-pathological characteristics.
Materials and Methods: A review of all thyroid malignancies diagnosed in our department from January 1994 to December 2013 was conducted. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS software (Version 23 Chicago).
Results: Papillary thyroid cancer was the most typical thyroid malignancy (52.7%). There was a gradual decline within the numbers of cases during the amount under review. Approximately 60.3% of the patients were younger than 40 years. the good majority (77.6%) were females with a female to male ratio of 4:1. Four patients (4) presented with symptoms of metastatic disease (headache in 2; pathological fracture of the femur in 1; and dysphagia – 1). Many of the patients (62.9%) presented after 2 years with large anterior neck swelling. PTC was commonly diagnosed in total thyroidectomy specimens (43.1%). Follicular variant of PTC was the most typical histological subtype (75.6%). Lymphovascular invasion was found in approximately 16.4% of the cases. Nine of the cases (7.8%) showed extra-glandular involvement. 
 McLeod, D.S., Cooper, D.S., Ladenson, P.W., Ain, K.B., Brierley, J.D., Fein, H.G., Haugen, B.R., Jonklaas, J., Magner, J., Ross, D.S. and Skarulis, M.C., 2014. Prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer in relation to serum thyrotropin and thyroglobulin antibody status at time of diagnosis. Thyroid, 24(1), (Web Link)
 Xing, M.B.R.A.F., 2005. BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer. Endocrine-related cancer, 12(2), (Web Link)
 Mazzaferri, E.L. and Jhiang, S.M., 1994. Long-term impact of initial surgical and medical therapy on papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. The American journal of medicine, 97(5), (Web Link)
 Geographic influences in the global rise of thyroid cancer
Jina Kim, Jessica E. Gosnell & Sanziana A. Roman
Nature Reviews Endocrinology volume 16, (Web Link)
 Der, E.M., Naaeder, S.B., Dakubo, J.N. and Gyasi, R.K., 2017. Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Histopathological Review in Accra, Ghana. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, (Web Link)