News Update on Antioxidant Enzymes Research: Jan – 2020

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News Update on Antioxidant Enzymes Research: Jan – 2020

January 27, 2020 Biochemistry 0

Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases

Objectives: to explain the importance of the antioxidant enzymes SOD , peroxidase , and catalase working together in human cells against toxic reactive oxygen species, their relationship with several pathophysiologic processes and their possible therapeutic implications.

Conclusions: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved within the cell growth, differentiation, progression, and death. Low concentrations of ROS could also be beneficial or maybe indispensable in processes like intracellular signaling and defense against micro-organisms. Nevertheless, higher amounts of ROS play a task within the aging process also as during a number of human disease states, including cancer, ischemia, and failures in immunity and endocrine functions. As a safeguard against the buildup of ROS, several non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant activities exist. Therefore, when oxidative stress arises as a consequence of a pathologic event, a defence system promotes the regulation and expression of those enzymes. [1]

Regulation of antioxidant enzymes.

Free radicals generated by a partial reduction of O2 pose a significant hazard to tissues and vital organs, especially membrane lipids, connective tissues, and therefore the nucleic acids of cells. for cover , enzymes have evolved that specifically attack O2-, hydrogen, and organic peroxides, and repair any damage incurred to DNA. With few exceptions, antioxidant enzymes are found altogether aerobic and aerotolerant anaerobic organisms. Logic assumes that a basal level of antioxidant enzyme activity is maintained in the least times. this might be true. Yet cells must have ways to amplify antioxidant enzyme activity to counter sudden increases in oxygen metabolites. the complete details of that regulation are slowly coming to light. Bacteria possess a series of elaborate and interacting genes which will sense specific increases in intracellular H2O2 and O2-. In higher organisms, hormones and metal ion cofactors impose pre- and posttranslational control over the genetic expression of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, aging, cellular differentiation, and organ specificity must even be factored into the ultimate equation in higher organisms. This review will discuss a number of the newer findings relevant to antioxidant enzyme regulation in bacteria and better organisms. [2]

Effects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species toxicology

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are produced during normal cellular function. ROS include hydroxyl radicals, superoxide , peroxide and gas . they’re very transient species thanks to their high chemical reactivity that results in lipid peroxidation and oxidation of DNA and proteins. Under normal conditions, antioxidant systems of the cell minimize the perturbations caused by ROS. When ROS generation is increased to an extent that overcomes the cellular antioxidants, the result’s oxidative stress. it’s now clear that several biological molecules, which are involved in cell signaling and gene regulation systems are very sensitive to redox statue of the cell. Antioxidants are substances that delay or prevent the oxidation of cellular oxidizable substrates. the varied antioxidants exert their effect by scavenging superoxide, or by activating of A battery of detoxifying/defensive proteins. The prevention of oxidation is an important process altogether the aerobic organisms, as decreased antioxidant protection may cause cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and/or carcinogenicity. [3]

Assessment of malathion toxicity on cytophysiological activity, DNA damage and antioxidant enzymes in root of Allium cepa model

The current study was emphasized to assess the effect of malathion on rootage (cell division and kinetics of the basis elongation) and stress related parameters in onion L. The roots were exposed to different concentrations (0.05, 0.13, 0.26, 0.39 and 0.52 g/L) of malathion for various treatment periods (4, 8 and 18 h). The results revealed that malathion application affected the expansion rate and cellular division in root tips. the basis elongation kinetics were impaired at 0.13 to 0.52 g/L concentrations. Reduction in tissue water content (TWC) indicated the limited osmotic adjustment thanks to membrane damage. Further, a decrease in sucrose content was observed in contrast to the buildup of proline (upto 0.39 g/L). Moreover, malathion exposure elevated the amount of lipid peroxidation followed by changes in antioxidant enzymes status. [4]

The Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (Nictaginaceae) on the Activities of Antidiabetic, Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Enzymes in Experimental Diabetes

Diabetic therapeutic potentiality of methanol extract of stem leaves of Boerhavia diffusa was investigated following in-vivo study models in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Methanol extract of stem leaves of Boerhavia diffusa exerted the glucose lowering effect a rise in serum insulin level on 28st day of postadministration. additionally to a better expression of insulin receptor A. The extract treatment or glibenclamide for 28 days significantly. [5]

Reference

[1] Matés, J.M., Pérez-Gómez, C. and De Castro, I.N., 1999. Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases. Clinical biochemistry, 32(8), (Web Link)

[2] Harris, E.D., 1992. Regulation of antioxidant enzymes. The FASEB Journal, 6(9), (Web Link)

[3] Mates, J.M., 2000. Effects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species toxicology. Toxicology, 153(1-3), (Web Link)

[4] Assessment of malathion toxicity on cytophysiological activity, DNA damage and antioxidant enzymes in root of Allium cepa model
Akhileshwar Kumar Srivastava & Divya Singh
Scientific Reports volume 10, (Web Link)

[5] Ibrahima, M. S., Eugène, A., Justin, B., Madjid, A., Machioud, S., Rodrigue, A., Félix, G., Latifou, L., Alphonse, S., Lamine, B.-M., Seri, B. and Khan, N. (2018) “The Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (Nictaginaceae) on the Activities of Antidiabetic, Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Enzymes in Experimental Diabetes”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 24(5), (Web Link)

 

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