News Update on crop production April-21

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News Update on crop production April-21

April 15, 2021 Environment 0

[1] Breeding Technologies to Increase Crop Production in a Changing World

To feed the several billion people living on this planet, the production of high-quality food must increase with reduced inputs, but this accomplishment will be particularly challenging in the face of global environmental change. Plant breeders need to focus on traits with the greatest potential to increase yield. Hence, new technologies must be developed to accelerate breeding through improving genotyping and phenotyping methods and by increasing the available genetic diversity in breeding germplasm. The most gain will come from delivering these technologies in developing countries, but the technologies will have to be economically accessible and readily disseminated. Crop improvement through breeding brings immense value relative to investment and offers an effective approach to improving food security.

[2] Plant protection and world crop production

The introductory section of this publication (translated by J. H. Edwards) reviews the present world food supply, population growth, and the effects of diseases, pests, and weeds on agricultural production. The main section estimates potential production and actual losses due to insects, diseases, and weeds of each of the chief agricultural crops in each of the major countries of the world. The results are summarized and discussed.

[3] Contribution of agrometeorology to the simulation of crop production and its applications

Weather has a significant impact on crop growth and development. This paper presents an overview of crop modeling and applications of crop models, and the significance of weather related to these applications. To account for the impact of weather and climate variability on crop production, agrometeorological variables are one of the key inputs required for the operation of crop simulation models. These include maximum and minimum air temperature, total solar radiation, and total rainfall. Most models use daily data as input, because variables at a smaller time scale are usually unavailable for most locations. It is important to define standard file formats for weather and other input data; this will expand the applicability of weather data by different models. Issues related to missing variables and data, as well as locations for which no data are available, need to be addressed for model applications, as it can affect the accuracy of the simulations.

[4] Application of Different Reclamation Methods on Salt Affected Soils for Crop Production

Effects of salic conditions on soil properties under a given land use type and the methods for reclamation has not received the desired research attention in Nigeria. Understanding of how soil properties and crop yield respond to the influence of salic conditions is needed for employment of location-specific management strategies for the economic agricultural production. This study was conducted on salt affected soils during 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 crop years to investigate the soil physico-chemical properties and their effects on two maize cultivar growth and yield. Three approaches were employed to reclaim the salt affected soils in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the time of reclamation. Soils were sampled at two depth intervals: surface (0-15 cm depth) and subsurface (15-30 cm) for physical and chemical analysis. The experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD). The treatments were arranged in RCBD and replicated thrice. The treatment applications were 100% gypsum (CaS04) Gypsum requirement (GR); 25 Mg ha-1gypsum + farm yard manure (FYM) and chiseling. Leaching with irrigation water was done over a period of 2-4 hours per week. During the two cropping seasons, rice and millet crops were grown. Data collected were analysed statistically following ANOVA technique and treatment differences were evaluated using LSD test.

[5] Assessment of Food Crop Production in Relation to Climate Variation in Osun State Southwestern Nigeria

This study investigated trends in production of nine majorly cultivated food crops between 1992 and 2016 in Osun State, southwestern Nigeria. It also examined the contribution of the State to the total national food production and impact of climate variations on crop yields. It used secondary crop data collected from both the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD), Abuja and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as well as station observation of rainfall, relative humidity, minimum and maximum temperatures. Annual crop productions were estimated and ratio of the State to national crop cultivated area and that of production were computed using both the FMARD and the FAO datasets. The means, standard deviations, interquartile ranges were computed and trend analysis using Mann–Kendall test was done to assess trends and variability in climatic characteristics and basic components of crop production. Multiple regression and synchronization analyses were carried out to investigate the relationship between the crop yield and the climate. Cassava production was found to be the highest with about 0.9 million metric tons per year. The State highest contribution to the national crop production was 3.3 – 5.3% (cocoyam) and the least 0.03-0.04% (cowpea).

Reference

[1] Tester, M. and Langridge, P., 2010. Breeding technologies to increase crop production in a changing world. Science327(5967), pp.818-822.

[2] Cramer, H.H., 1967. Plant protection and world crop production. Plant protection and world crop production.

[3] Hoogenboom, G., 2000. Contribution of agrometeorology to the simulation of crop production and its applications. Agricultural and forest meteorology103(1-2), pp.137-157.

[4] Ezeaku, P.I., Ene, J. and Shehu, J.A., 2015. Application of different reclamation methods on salt affected soils for crop production. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.1-11.

[5] Olajire, M.A., Matthew, O.J., Omotara, O.A. and Aderanti, A., 2018. Assessment of Food Crop Production in Relation to Climate Variation in Osun State Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, pp.1-14.

 

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