News Update on Religion: April 21
 Religion and Economy
Religion has a two-way interaction with political economy. With religion viewed as a dependent variable, a central question is how economic development and political institutions affect religious participation and beliefs. With religion viewed as an independent variable, a key issue is how religiosity affects individual characteristics, such as work ethic, honesty, and thrift, and thereby influences economic performance. In this paper, we sketch previous studies of this two-way interaction but focus on our ongoing quantitative research with international data.
 Religion and Unforgivable Offenses
The value of forgiveness is emphasized in many religions, but little is known about how members of distinct religious cultures differ in their views of forgiveness. We hypothesized and found that Jews would agree more than Protestants that certain offenses are unforgivable and that religious commitment would be more negatively correlated with belief in unforgivable offenses among Protestants than among Jews (Studies 1 and 2). Dispositional forgiveness tendencies did not explain these effects (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 3, Jews were more inclined than Protestants to endorse theologically derived reasons for unforgivable offenses (i.e., some offenses are too severe to forgive, only victims have the right to forgive, and forgiveness requires repentance by the perpetrator). Differential endorsement of these reasons for nonforgiveness fully mediated Jew‐Protestant differences in forgiveness of a plagiarism offense and a Holocaust offense.
 Religion and meaning
This chapter describes current theories and empirical findings regarding religion and meaning. To provide a framework for this review, a model of meaning is first presented that distinguishes global and situational meaning. This model is then used to describe how religion is often involved in both levels: global meaning in terms of beliefs, goals, and the subjective sense of meaningfulness, and situational meaning in both ordinary and stressful life circumstances. The chapter concludes with suggestions regarding future research on religion and meaning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
 Communicative Life-world and Religion
Life-world represents the background of beliefs, moral values, cultural norms that are presupposed in ordinary life and communication. Our social world evolves through communication that can assume the form of the uses of language (ordinary and extra-ordinary). We will see that both aspects are crucial to understand the process of secularism and the new “post-secular” society.
 Religion as the Opium of the Masses: A Study of the Contemporary Relevance of Karl Marx
This article used data from descriptive background to examine the view of Karl Marx on Christian religion in Nigeria today. It examined both the negative and the positive impact of Karl Marx’s view on religion in academia. The study also examined the reality of his view on Christianity the present day Nigeria. The study concluded that Christianity of the time of Karl Marx has lost its fervour and could no longer be termed the opium of the masses at least in contemporary Nigeria and therefore suggests a shift from being religious to being ‘born again’ in order to experience effective and efficient transformation.
 McCleary, R.M. and Barro, R.J., 2006. Religion and economy. Journal of Economic perspectives, 20(2), pp.49-72.
 Cohen, A.B., Malka, A., Rozin, P. and Cherfas, L., 2006. Religion and unforgivable offenses. Journal of personality, 74(1), pp.85-118.
 Park, C.L., 2013. Religion and meaning.
 Giovagnoli, R., 2016. Communicative Life-world and Religion. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, pp.1-7.
 Omonijo, D.O., Uche, O.O.C., Nnedum, O.A.U. and Chine, B.C., 2016. Religion as the Opium of the Masses: A Study of the Contemporary Relevance of Karl Marx. Asian Research Journal Of Arts & Social Sciences, pp.1-7.