News Update on Serum Glucose April-21
 Serum glucose concentration as a modulator of interdigestive gastric motility
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of serum glucose concentration on interdigestive gastrointestinal motility and plasma motilin levels in humans. Motility studies were performed for a 3-h baseline period and a 3-h test period during which serum glucose levels were maintained with a glucose clamp at 250, 175, 140, or 120 mg/dl. During the basal recording, three phases of the interdigestive migrating motor complex (MMC) were easily recognizable, with a mean cycle duration of 97 ± 12 min. Plasma motilin levels fluctuated in phase with the MMC. Gastric contractions were nearly absent at a serum glucose level of 250 mg/dl and markedly reduced at 175 and 140 mg/dl. Gastric phase III activity was inhibited during these infusions. Gastric contractions and phase III activity were not affected by glucose infusion at 120 mg/dl. In contrast, the frequency of duodenal phase III activity was unchanged at all levels of glucose infusion.
 A colorimetric serum glucose determination using hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
A colorimetric serum glucose assay was developed utilizing hexokinase: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase reactions coupled with the concomitant reduction of a tetrazolium salt. The rapid, simple and specific assay requires only 10 μl or 20 μl of serum and exhibits a minimal reaction blank. Standard curves obtained with aqueous glucose standards or commercial serum calibration references were linear up to 400 mg 100 ml glucose. A variety of alternative procedures gaveidentical results, and the method correlated well with a glucose oxidase procedure.
 Serum Urate, Serum Glucose and Diabetes
We have studied the relationship between serum glucose and urate in 260 699 men and 214 118 women from Sweden, and 140 084 men and 30 653 women from the UK. We found an increase in mean serum urate with increasing glucose concentrations up to 7·0 mmol/L in men and 9·0 mmol/L in women. Thereafter increasing glucose values were accompanied by a statistically significant decrease in urate concentrations. This fall was particularly marked in younger subjects. We believe this may have important implications for the free radical status of diabetics.
 Effect of Ethanol Extract of Coccinia grandis Lin leaf on Glucose and Cholesterol Lowering Activity
Aims: To investigate the effect of ethanol extract of Coccinia grandis Lin (Cucurbitaceae) leaf in glucose and cholesterol lowering activity in animal model.
Study Design: Extraction, glucose and cholesterol lowering activity evaluation.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, North South University, Dhaka between June 2012 and December 2012.
Methodology: Glucose and cholesterol lowering effect of the ethanol extract of C. grandis leaf was evaluated using the alloxan-induced diabetic rat and compared the activity with diabetic control and antidiabetic drug (Glibenclamide). Ethanol extract (25mg/kg) of C. grandis and Glibenclamide were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for the duration of 10 days.
Results: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardenolides and polyprenols in significant amounts. In the alloxan-induced diabetic rat model, C. grandis (25 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) lowered fasting blood glucose levels. C. grandis extract (25 mg/kg) also produced significant (p<0.05) total cholesterol lowering and HDL increasing (p<0.05) effects. Surprisingly, body weight was increased significantly (p<0.05) in the C. grandis treated diabetic group.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the ethanol extract of C. grandis leaf possesses significant glucose and cholesterol lowering activity in animal model, thus supporting the usage of the plant in traditional medicine as an anti-diabetic medication.
 Effect of Sesamum indicum (Linn) Seeds Supplemented Diets on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profiles and Serum Levels of Enzymes in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats
The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Sesamum indicum (linn) seeds supplemented diets on blood glucose, lipid profiles and serum enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Forty male albino Wistar rats were divided into two broad groups based on diet supplementation with raw and roasted Sesamum indicum. Each broad group consisted of five sub-groups of four rats (normoglycemic control, diabetic control, standard drug-glibenclamide treated, diabetic rat treated with 10% Sesamum indicum supplemented diet and 20% Sesamum supplemented diet) for five weeks. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of freshly prepared alloxan (100 mg/kg b.wt) given intraperitonealy. Blood glucose level was monitored using glucometer. Serum lipid profile and serum enzymes were determined using standard spectrophotometric methods. There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the blood glucose levels of groups fed diets supplemented with raw and roasted sesame seed by about 34.89% and 37.33% respectively when compared to the diabetic control at the end of the experiment. The trend obtained for blood glucose levels was similar with that observed with the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoproteins at the same level of significance (p<0.05). The supplemented diets were able to increase the high density lipoprotein that was found to be low in the diabetic rats. The levels of serum enzymes found to be high in the diabetic rats were significantly (p<0.05) decreased at the end of the experiment with the supplemented diets. This study has shown that Sesamum indicum (Linn) seed either raw or roasted is capable of lowering the high blood glucose, lipid levels and some serum enzymes derangement observed in diabetes.
 Barnett, J.L. and Owyang, C., 1988. Serum glucose concentration as a modulator of interdigestive gastric motility. Gastroenterology, 94(3), pp.739-744.
 Carroll, J.J., Smith, N. and Babson, A.L., 1970. A colorimetric serum glucose determination using hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochemical Medicine, 4(2), pp.171-180.
 Whitehead, T.P., Jungner, I., Robinson, D., Kolar, W., Pearl, A. and Hale, A., 1992. Serum urate, serum glucose and diabetes. Annals of clinical biochemistry, 29(2), pp.159-161.
 Al-Amin, M.M., Uddin, M.M.N., Rizwan, A. and Islam, M.S., 2013. Effect of ethanol extract of Coccinia grandis Lin leaf on glucose and cholesterol lowering activity. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, pp.1070-1078.
 Akanya, H.O., Isa, U.L., Adeyemi, H.R. and Ossamulu, I.F., 2015. Effect of Sesamum indicum (Linn) seeds supplemented diets on blood glucose, lipid profiles and serum levels of enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, pp.134-144.