Pathological Correlates to Prolactin and Growth Hormone
Prolactin (PRL) and Growth Hormone (GH) are important regulators of body growth and metabolism. The secretion and activities of GH and PRL are influenced by a variety of variables at various levels. These hormones begin their biological effects by attaching to their respective membrane-bound receptors for GH and PRL (GHR and PRLR). Changes in target tissue sensitivity are a feature of several hormone systems. The number of specific receptors and the duration of receptor triggered intracellular impulses are important determinants in hormone sensitivity. For example, tyrosine phosphorylated intracellular proteins are inactivated by tyrosine phosphatases or proteasomal degradation, which is a recurring motif. This chapter focuses on two distinct proteins, Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling2 (SOCS2) and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex2 (TSC2), which have distinct effects on JAK-STAT and mTOR activation. The SOCS2-dependent increase in GH and PRL sensitivity in diabetes and other disorders such as hormone-sensitive malignancies raises questions about the significance of changed GH/PRL sensitivity in addition to conditions involving over- or under-production of these hormones. It could be used to target GH/PRL sensitivity in the future if conventional hormone therapy fails due to decreasing sensitivity. There are many gaps in our understanding that need to be addressed, and this may be especially true for PRL, where fresh research suggests that the hormone’s activity profile in humans differs from that in animals.
Author (S) Details
Amira Al Kharusi
College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University (SQU), Oman.
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