Physiological Panel of Some Feed Additives for Turkey Toms
Aims: To find the effect of basil and thyme (medicinal plants) and some enzymes (kemzyme and zymogen) as feed additives on some productive performance, some metabolic parameters, integrity and functionality of gastrointestinal tract.
Study Design: Forty – eight male turkey toms (strain, Big 6), 3 months old were used with an average body weight 5.5 kg. All turkeys were apparently active and healthy. The turkey toms were raised on floor covered with dry wood shaving, which was used in all partition, its thickness is about 10-15 cm and renewed every 3 days till the end of the experiment. The house was divided into 8 partitions, each partition was (240 cm X 180 cm) providing enough surface area for each turkey. In each partition there were plastic feeders and drinkers of 20 L capacity, it was provided with identifying card to record all required information. Food and water were available ad-libitum through the period of experiment. The house was well ventilated by natural windows. Light was turned off (one hour in 24 hours) as recommended by . Turkey was kept under hygienic condition and as far as possible from any discomfort stimuli. Feeding Regimen; Basal ration were formulated to cover the nutrient requirements of growing turkey according to National Research Center . Toms were randomly divided into eight groups (6 toms/each). The control group (C) was fed a basal diet without feed supplementation. Group(B) was supplemented with basil (3 g basil/kg diet) group (T) was fed thyme (2 g thyme/kg diet), group (TB) was fed a mixture of basil and thyme (3 g basil + 2 g thyme kg diet), group (Z) was fed zymogen (1 ml/4 liter water); and group (K) was supplemented with kemzyme (0.5 g/kg diet), group (BTK) was fed a mixture of basil, thyme and kemzyme, the last group was fed with diet supplemented with basil, thyme and zymogen (BTZ).
Place and Duration of Study: The present study was carried out in animal care center, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University. During the period from March till May 2015. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks.
Methodology: Body weight gain, feed conversion ratio was measured at the end of 10th week of experiment. Blood samples were taken to measure some biochemical & hormonal parameters, at the same time some tissues for morphological and molecular studies were prepared. Tissue samples were taken from duodenum. They were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for measuring the length of villi and the depth of crypts using A computerized microscopic image analyzer attached for full HD microscopic camera (Leica Microsystems, Germany was used to determine the histomorphometry parameters . The other part of the collected tissues was prepared as homogenate for total DNA& RNA purification according to  using the QIAamp Mini Kit.
Results: Toms fed with either basil, thyme or kemzyme (BT) had significantly (p < 0.05) heaviest body gain than the control, (Z) or (BTZ). Significant increase occurred of the dressing percent (DP%) in group and (BT) compared to the groups (T, Z, BTK and BTZ).
Supplementation with (K) significantly decreases the serum total lipids than the (C) group and all supplemented groups at P < 0.05. Serum cholesterol levels of the groups (T), (BT) and (Z) recorded a significant increase than those of groups (C), (K), (BTK) and (BTZ). Meanwhile; triglyceride levels revealed significant decrease in control group at (p < 0.05) than all other groups. All experimental groups recorded no differences in both serum protein and albumin. Although there were an increased levels of serum AST of groups (T) and (Z) compared to control and other groups, meanwhile; (T) and (Z) groups revealed the lowest level of serum ALT.
Concerning the antioxidant parameters, results reviewed that (T), (BT), (BTK) and (BTZ) had a higher level of MDA activity than the (B), (K) and (Z) supplemented groups illustrate no difference versus the serum (MDA) activity of the (C) group. Serum SOD activity revealed no differences within all groups. Serum TAC recorded significant increase in all supplemented groups compared to their level in control group.
Studies of intestinal integrity; morphometry studies indicated that the villous height increased in groups (T), (Z) and (BTK) with a higher villous to crypt ratio and goblet cell numbers of group supplemented with (BTK). Moreover, the villous width revealed a significant increase in the (C) and (Z) groups. The measurement of total DNA of duodenal tissues which reflect the cell mitosis was higher in (T), (Z) and (BTK), (BTZ) at P < 0.05; the recorded results of DNA/protein of the same segment of the duodenal tissues revealed higher ratio (higher ribosomal activity) of (T), (Z), and (BTK) groups. Cell size of the duodenal tissues as indicated by (protein/DNA) was increased by (K) and decrease by (T) and (Z) supplementation at P < 0.05.
Conclusion: Supplementation of turkey rations with herbs (basil & thyme) and multienzymes (zymogen & kemzyme) either alone or in combination produce a significant improvement in turkeys’ performance. They may regulate feed intake, increase intestinal surface area for more absorption and utilization of feed; and Contain different antioxidants activity.
For more information contact author
Sohair Y. Saleh
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Meonofya, Egypt.
E-mail: [email protected]
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