Study on Indium Free Transparent and Flexible Electrode: Dielectric/Metal/Dielectric Multilayer Structures from Smart Window to Semi-transparent Solar Cells
In free transparent conductive and flexible multilayer electrodes are the focus of this chapter. The new electrodes are made up of multilayer dielectric/metal/dielectric (D/M/D) structures that were formed under vacuum. After a quick review of the general properties of D/M/D electrodes using Ag as the metal, we move on to the investigation of D/Cu/D multilayer structures in this paper. We propose that Cu be replaced by Ag because it is significantly less expensive. Cu, on the other hand, has a tendency to diffuse into a variety of dielectrics, making it difficult to obtain stable electrodes. Cu:alloys, such as Cu:Ni, Cu:Al, and Cu:Ag, are used to demonstrate that employing Cu:alloys, such as Cu:Ni, Cu:Al, and Cu:Ag, Cu ions diffusion may be greatly reduced and the stability of multilayer electrodes with Cu can be significantly increased by using metal. Then, we demonstrate that when these electrodes are utilised as anodes in organic photovoltaic cells, they can achieve efficiency comparable to that of ITO. Finally, we show that employing D/M/D structures as top electrodes, semi-transparent organic solar cells with significant performance may be created.
Author (S) Details
J. C. Bernède
MOLTECH-Anjou, CNRS, UMR 6200, Université de Nantes, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44322, France.
Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, CNRS, UMR 6502, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44322, France.
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