Study on Natural Joints: Hydrophilic and Negatively Charged Cartilage Surface effect Friction
The hydrophilic and negatively charged surface of cartilage is a physical phenomenon for biological systems. However, some characteristics of cartilage surfaces, such as interfacial surface energy, amphoteric, wettability, negatively charged bilayers, and lamellar slippage, are unknown. To support and correct Hills  hydrophobic lubrication model, which is hydrophilic and negatively charged, some of these characteristics will be collected from literature. Phospholipids are highly self-lubricating. Organized biomolecules in aqueous fluids, whose structure allows them to form vesicles, lamellar phases, and bilayers spontaneously (see Fig. 1). The following studies have been carried out to verify the hydrophobic or hydrophilic model: Interfacial energy, cartilage surface wettability, and friction (cartilage/cartilage) pair (values measured for the air-dry surfaces).
Author (S) Details
Kujawy University, Mechanical Department, Czarnieckiego 5/7, 86-300 Grudziadz, Poland and CORSAR Engineering Industry, Glogowa 2, 86-031 Osielsko, Poland.
Tribochemistry Consulting, Salt Lake City, UT 84117, USA and University of Economy, Biotribology Laboratory, Garbary 2, 85-229 Bydgoszcz, Poland.
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