Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes: Screening and Risk Indicators
Background: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) during physical activity in athletes is uncommon. SCD in a young athlete is a terrible event that is the biggest medical cause of death in this population. The exact prevalence of SCD in young athletes has been a source of contention, with studies reporting widely disparate rates (1:917,000 AYs to 1:3000 AYs) depending on the methodological design of the study or the demographic studied.
The goal of this study was to assess the warning signals of SCD in young athletes and compare them to electrocardiographic data.
Methods: This was a prospective case-control study comparing athletes to inactive people. Resting electrocardiography and the Sudden Cardiac Death Screening of Risk Factors (SCD-SOS) questionnaire were used.
The overall number of participants was 898, with 589 (65.6%) in the case group (athletes) and 309 (34.4%) in the control group (sedentary). Athletes had considerably fewer fainting episodes (odds ratio 0.252, p0.001). There were no significant differences in heart rates. Sinus arr was the most prevalent electrocardiographic finding.
Conclusion: Risk markers for sudden cardiac death were shown to be less common in young athletes. There was a link between the duration of the QRS complex and the number of athletes that fainted. SCD is the main cause of death in athletes while they are exercising, and it is usually caused by intrinsic heart abnormalities precipitated by the physiologic demands of strenuous exercise. SCD rates are now at least 4 to 5 times higher than previously thought, with men, African Americans, and male basketball players being the most vulnerable. According to new evidence, the most common finding in athletes with SCD is a structurally normal heart (autopsy-negative sudden inexplicable death).
Author (S) Details
Antonio da Silva Menezes Junior
Federal University of Goiás, Brazil and Pontifícial Catholic University of Goiás, Brazil.