Targeted Immunotherapy in Urological Malignancies
The treatment of urological cancers has been transformed by targeted immunotherapy. The method attempts to mimic the immune system’s natural ability to eliminate cancer cells. This can be accomplished by the use of non-specific treatments like recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or particular agents such immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and anti-tumor vaccines. The use of BCG to prevent tumour recurrence and progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer has been a huge success (NMIBC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently been utilised to degrade muscle. invasive (MIBC) to non-invasive (NMIBC) or even cure in clinical trials. In advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and refractory germ cell tumour of the testis, the ICI has demonstrated a good response. Pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, and ipilimumab were found to be more effective than sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which is now the standard of therapy for advanced RCC. The US Federal Drug Administration Agency has approved Sipuleucel-T, an autologous prostatic acid phosphatase dendritic cell loaded vaccination, for CRPC. Immunotherapy comes with controllable side effects such infusion responses and immune-related adverse events. invasive (MIBC) to NMIBC or even achieved cure at the level of clinical trials. The ICI has shown a positive response in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), refractory germ cell tumour of the testis. The ICI such as pembrolizumab, atezolizumab and ipilimumab achieved better response than sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor; which is the standard of care in advanced RCC. Sipuleucel-T, an autologous prostatic acid phosphatase dendritic cell loaded vaccine, has been approved by US Federal Drug Administration Agency for CRPC. Immunotherapy is associated with manageable toxicity such as infusion reactions and immune-related adverse event which respond to the use of corticosteroids with or without cessation of the therapy
Author (S) Details
Dr. Abubakar Sadiq Muhammad
Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria.
View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/HMMR-V13/article/view/1553