Temperature and Elementary Carriers of Heat
The experimentally determined temperature of a substance is a comparative value relative to the extensive property of another system (thermometers, thermocouples, etc.) taken as the initial measurement standard or reference point. Therefore, the concept of temperature, which we face at first glance seems to be a very simple value, but in fact it is a complex parameter that characterizes the state of the system at the same time on the micro-and macroscopic formations. When considering the properties of substances at the macro level, as a rule, there are many difficulties with the interpretation of micro-phenomena, which is due to the lack of understanding and specific ideas about micro-objects. In turn, micro-objects are constituent elements of macro-objects. This leads to an incomplete understanding of the processes occurring in macro objects. Meanwhile, the micro-macroscopic properties of substances are manifested at the same time and are combined by quantitative and qualitative characteristics: The amount of internal energy, temperature, mole, Planck’s, Boltzmann’s constants etc. At the same time, the value of temperature, which is estimated by comparing extensive properties of measuring instruments is considered the result of the chaotic motion of molecules of system as stated in statistical physics. This work reveals the physical meaning of the concept “temperature” and describes the nature of elementary carriers of heat and its relationship to temperature. The calculated energy of the portable “theplotron” and the mass of photons and “theplotron”, which represent a kind of “electromagnetic particles”. These particles take part in the implementation of the Coulomb electric interaction and prevents annihilation; are in combination with electrons and the nature of their motion determines the thermal, optical, magnetic, electrical and other properties. The frequency of pulsations of “electromagnetic particles” determines the physical meaning of the temperature and the internal pressure of the system. The pulsation of the particles creates a standing wave, and their directed collective motion in a free form represents a seeming traveling wave which is taken as an “electromagnetic wave”.
For more information contact author
B. T. Utelbayev
Kazakh-British Technical University, Kazakhstan.
M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Kazakhstan.
E-mail: [email protected]
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