Temporal and Spatial Variability in Water and Sediment Characteristics of Abule Agege, Abule Eledu, Ogbe, Creeks Adjoining Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria
Lagos lagoon is known to contain a vast number of anthropogenic stressors that resulted from the influx of human activities due to the increase in human population, industries and incursion of contaminants from adjoining thus making the ecosystem highly contaminated. The degree of this contamination can be affected by the seasonal variations in time and space. The spatial and temporal variations in the hydrochemistry and sediments characteristics of three (3) Lagos lagoon’s creeks were investigated for six months (June, 2016 to November, 2016). Sub-surface water and sediments were collected with a 1 dm3 water sampler and Van-veen grab, respectively and analyzed. Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and conductivity of the water samples and pH, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate), total organic matter (TOM) and total organic content (TOC), alkalinity, acidity and particle size of the sediment samples were analyzed. The physico-chemical parameters in the water and sediment from the sampled creeks showed none significant differences (P>0.05). The study showed an increasing level of parameters’ rates analyzed, indicating increased contaminants in Abule Eledu and Ogbe creeks. Water temperature maintained a relatively uniform temperature with dissolved oxygen values range of 1.6 to 3.1 mg/L. Conductivity was higher in June to August while high prevalence of nutrients was observed in October and November. Abule Agege and Abule Eledu recorded TOM and TOC that were above 15 mg/kg in June to August while alkalinity and acidity were high in October (6.63 mg/kg) and November (7.72 mg/kg) in the study creeks. The sediment particles size of the creeks ranged from clay, muddy and sandy substratum signifying that they were macro benthic specific. The increase of the parameters’ concentration indicates that the three creeks are highly impacted by anthropogenic stressors, dependent on the source of pollution occurring at the sites as well as controlled by seasonal variations. Continuous monitoring and concerted efforts are needed to be done to prevent future heavy metal pollution, total degradation thereby formulating appropriate protective and conservation measures in the water’s quality of the Lagos lagoon’s creeks.
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A. P. Onyena
Department of Marine Environment and Pollution Control, Faculty of Marine Environmental Management, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Delta State, Nigeria.
Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.