Thermal Physics of Clusters in Atomic Gases
The author’s discoveries in cluster physics of equilibrium atomic gases are reviewed in this chapter. Many researchers have studied the pure atomic gas method both experimentally and theoretically, but the existence of clusters has remained a mystery. Clusters are now thought to be a new state of matter. It is both difficult and educational to research them. The pure real atomic gas is an advanced medium for thermodynamics education: it is the first step after the simplistic atomic ideal gas model toward a more practical model that accounts for atomic interactions. The author’s thesis is based on a wonderful aspect of pure real atomic gases: the chemical potential of universal basic particles for atoms in all clusters. It allows you to calculate the monomer fraction density based on the total density’s experimental pressure dependence. The study of the author is based on the expansion of the gas potential energy density sequence by the monomer fraction density. The author uses his computer-aided study of detailed thermophysical data on atomic gases to show that clusters in them have unknown and nontrivial properties. Exact experimental thermophysical data were taken from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) online Webbook for this study. Due to the lack of rotational symmetry of their electronic outer shells, the temperature dependences of the atomic interaction bond energies indicate directional bonding of atoms in clusters near the triple limit. The contribution of elastic repulsions to the gas’s potential energy at high temperatures is taken into account in the study. Anomaly density dependences of the constant volume heat potential in gaseous Helium and Neon have been discovered, indicating irregular atomic interactions in these gases’ clusters.
Author (s) Details
Computer and Information Systems Department, Russian New University (ROSNOU) Moscow, Russia.
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