Understanding the Links between Pesticides in Agricultural Run Offs and Its Impact on Human Health

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Understanding the Links between Pesticides in Agricultural Run Offs and Its Impact on Human Health

January 13, 2021 Agricultural Sciences 0

Pesticides are substances or a combination of substances that vary from one to the other in their physical, chemical and identical properties. Based on these properties, they are thus graded. Depending on the criteria, certain pesticides are often graded into separate groups. Currently, the three most common classifications of commonly used pesticides are classifications based on the mode of entry, the role of the pesticide and the organism of the pest they destroy, the chemical composition of the pesticide[1]. Due to the fact that pesticides are meant to be harmful to specific classes of species, they may have major adverse environmental effects on other living organisms as well as on different media, including air, soil or water)[2]. It was found that the modes of action for pesticides are not species-specific, questions about environmental risks associated with their exposure have been posed across different routes (e.g., residues in food and drinking water). Although these threats range from short-term (e.g. irritation of the skin and eyes, headaches, dizziness and nausea) to chronic effects (e.g. cancer, asthma and diabetes), their risk is difficult to elucidate because of the various factors involved (e.g. exposure period and level, type of pesticide (in terms of toxicity and persistence) and the environmental characteristics of the affected areas.[3]
Methodology: The research was carried out in two villages, Arnet in the Patiala District and Wallipur in the Punjab District of Ludhiana, India. Using a standardised schedule, case study, and in-depth interview, the respondents were questioned. With the aid of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Florescence, elemental analysis of vegetable samples was performed (EDXRF).
Objectives: (a) Evaluation of the use of pesticides and their frequency among farmers in the areas studied. (b) Assess the possible health risk of pesticide concentrations in runoff from field-sized agricultural watersheds and rivers and streams and their effects on field residents (Figures 1 and 2) (c) Collect the cases of families affected.
Data: Results indicate that 80 percent and 81 percent of Arnetu and Wallipur village respondents used pesticides in agricultural fields, respectively. Of the respondents from Arnetu and 70 percent from Wallipur village, the rate of pesticide usage was 60 percent. The respondents indicated that their use of pesticides depends on the kind of crops they have grown. The study area observed leaching of fertilisers and pesticides frequently occurring due to rain or irrigation water (vertical downward displacement of pesticides through the soil profile and the unsaturated region, and finally into ground water). It had a direct influence on the residents’ welfare. The vegetable analytical study showed that heavy metals polluted all the vegetables. Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Uranium (U) were found to be present in greater quantities, to name a few. The concentrations of these heavy metals were greater than the (US EPA/IS/WHO/BIS) guideline values in all vegetable samples. In Wallipur village in Ludhiana District of Punjab, where 81 percent of respondents supported the application of pesticides in their area, the prevalence of cancer and Hepatitis C was also found.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Tejinder Kaur
Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Dr. A. K. Sinha
Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

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